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Deputy Dean for Behavioural Sciences
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Viktoria K. Antonova
People can store thousands of real-world objects in visual long-term memory with high precision. But are these objects stored as unitary, bound entities, as often assumed, or as bundles of separable features? We tested this in several experiments. In the first series of studies, participants were instructed to remember specific exemplars of real-world objects presented in a particular state (e.g., open/closed; full/empty; etc), and then were asked to recognize either which exemplars they had seen (e.g., I saw this coffee mug), or which exemplar-state conjunctions they had seen (e.g., I saw this coffee mug and it was full). Participants had a large number of within-category confusions, for example misremembering which states went with which exemplars, while simultaneously showing strong memory for the features themselves (e.g., which states they had seen; which exemplars they had seen). In a second series of studies, we found further evidence of independence: participants were very good at remembering which exemplars they had seen independently of whether these items were presented in a new or old state, but the same did not occur for features known to be truly holistically represented. Thus, we find through two lines of evidence that the features of real-world objects that support exemplar discrimination and state discrimination are not bound, suggesting visual objects are not inherently unitary entities in memory.
The Big Five Inventory–2 (BFI-2) is a recently published 60-item questionnaire that measures personality traits within the five-factor model framework. An important aspect of the BFI-2 is that it measures the traits at both the domain and facet levels and also controls acquiescence bias via the balanced number of true- and false-keyed items across the domains and facets. The current research evaluates factorial measurement invariance of a Russian version of the BFI-2 across sex and age within samples of 1,024 university students (Study 1) and 1,029 Internet users (Study 2). Across these samples, men scored lower on the domains of negative emotionality and agreeableness and slightly higher on extraversion. Sex differences were also obtained on various facets. In the Internet sample, age correlated modestly with several Big Five domains in accordance with the well-documented maturity principle. The newly developed Russian version of BFI-2 showed good reliability and validity across both samples. Moreover, random intercept exploratory factor analyses showed that the BFI-2 displayed a hierarchical five-domain-15-facet structure that demonstrated strict measurement invariance across sex and age.
The article continues the cycle of works devoted to the role of the home environment in the development of personal qualities necessary for interpersonal interaction. Casual communication is often associated with the distribution of various resources; this process requires personal qualities that not only promote justice receptivity, but also stimulate a tolerant attitude towards its violations. In the context of the characteristics of a friendly home environment, the ability to forgive is discussed. The sample included 590 students (M = 18.7, SD = 1.1, 477 girls and 113 boys). Multiple-scale questionnaires were used: Home Environment Functionality, Home Environment Relevance, and Home Attachment. The psychometric preparation of the Russian version of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale was carried out. As a result of adaptation and verification of the factor structure the Scale includes two subscales (Readiness to forgive and Lack of ruminations) and demonstrates good internal consistency reliability. The results demonstrated a high gender sensitivity. It was found that in the group of young women the characteristics of a friendly home are positively associated with the ability to forgive, and in the group of young men they are associated negatively. The greatest number of correlations is formed by the functional characteristics of the house, and in the group of young men also by attachment to the house. It is stated that in respect of young men the house realizes an intensifying function, and in respect of girls - ennobling; separation from the house is shown to develop the ability to forgive in the young men. It is concluded that the contribution of the home environment to the development of the ability to forgive is determined by the context of human development. Both forgiveness and unforgiveness are adaptive phenomena important for solving interpersonal and social tasks, the content of which is given by the gender of the respondents. The results are consistent with the concepts of moral development of L. Kohlberg and K. Gilligan.
This book presents the history of globalization as a network-based story in the context of Big History. Departing from the traditional historic discourse, in which communities, cities, and states serve as the main units of analysis, the authors instead trace the historical emergence, growth, interconnection, and merging of various types of networks that have gradually encompassed the globe. They also focus on the development of certain ideas, processes, institutions, and phenomena that spread through those networks to become truly global.
The book specifies five macro-periods in the history of globalization and comprehensively covers the first four, from roughly the 9th – 7th millennia BC to World War I. For each period, it identifies the most important network-related developments that facilitated (or even spurred on) such transitions and had the greatest impacts on the history of globalization.
By analyzing the world system's transition to new levels of complexity and connectivity, the book provides valuable insights into the course of Big History and the evolution of human societies.
This article contributes to the growing body of research on the increasing role of judicial systems in regulating politics and religion (‘judicialization of politics and religion’) across the globe. By examining how academic expertise is deployed in anti-extremist litigation involving Russia’s minority religions, this article reveals important processes involved in this judicial regulation, in particular when legal and academic institutions lack autonomy and consistency of operation. It focuses on the selection of experts and the validation of their opinion within Russia’s academia and the judiciary, and identifies patterns in the experts’ approach to evidence and how they validate their conclusions in the eyes of the judiciary. Academic expertise provides an aura of legitimacy to judicial decisions in which anti-extremist legislation is used as a means to control unpopular minority religions and to regulate Russia’s religious diversity. As one of the few systematic explorations of this subject and the first focused on Russia, this article reveals important processes that produce religious discrimination and the role that anti-extremist legislation plays in these processes.
Recent years have witnessed a significant growth in the Russian-speaking community in Montreal, Canada. However, little is currently known about the predictors of psychological adjustment in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). In this study we explored the expectations that this group of immigrants (N = 271) hoped to fulfill in their adopted society, the extent to which these expectations have been fulfilled, and the impact of fulfilled expectations on psychological adjustment. We found that the degree of fulfilled expectations was significantly associated with better psychological adjustment independent of personality traits, language proficiency, and acculturation. These findings contribute to the literature on cross-cultural adaptation of immigrants from the FSU and highlight the potential importance of expectations for the study of acculturation more generally.
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine the perspectives of improving the system of emergency medical aid and services in the conditions of digital economy and to develop the algorithm of this system's work on the basis of the Internet of Things. Methodology: The methods of systematization, logical analysis, and block schemes are used. Results: As a result of studying the peculiarities of the applied universal algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services, current problems and their causal connections are determined. It is substantiated that in the conditions of digital economy there's a possibility for full-scale technological modernization of the system of emergency medical aid and services, which allows improving it due to complex solving of all determined topical problems. An algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services on the basis of the Internet of Things is developed. Recommendations: The offered algorithm is recommended for practical application, as it ensures the following advantages: Automatic call for emergency medical aid if necessary, substantial reduction of the period of patient's waiting for a transport vehicle for providing emergency medical aid and services, reduction and automatization of organizational procedures that accompany the process of provision of emergency medical aid and services, overcoming the deficit or absence of necessary medication for providing highly-effective emergency medical aid and services, and increase of competence of medical staff that provide emergency medical aid and services due to systemic collection of feedback from patients. These advantages allow guaranteeing timely provision of emergency medical aid and services and insurance payments for compensating the expenditures of medical organizations, thus increasing the effectiveness of work of the system of emergency medical aid and services. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ is an epic novel, considered one of the most significant works of Russian and world literature. The debate on the authorship of ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ had been surrounding the novel since its first release in 1928 by Mikhail Sholokhov, who was repeatedly accused of plagiarism. The supporters of the plagiarism theory often indicate that the real author of the novel is the Cossack writer, Fyodor Kryukov, who died before ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ was published. In the present study we applied the information-based similarity analysis (Yang et al., 2003a, Linguistic analysis of human heartbeats using frequency and rank order statistics. Physical Review Letters, 90: 108103; Yang et al., 2003b, Information categorization approach to literary authorship disputes. Physica A, 329, 473) and Burrows's Delta (Burrows, 2002, ‘Delta’: a measure of stylistic difference and a guide to likely authorship. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 17(3):267–87) to a corpus of Russian literature of XIX and XX centuries. We next used these two methods to compare ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ to Sholokhov’s and Kryukov’s writings. It was found that Fyodor Kryukov writings are distinct from ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’, whilst Sholokhov’s writings being close to the Don novel. The results also highlight how both information similarity analysis and Delta analysis can be used Russian language.
Note-taking is an ordinary, common student practice at universities, which is rapidly changing under the influx of electronic technologies for recording and storing audio and visual educational materials. However, little attention has been paid to the actual organization of note-taking. This chapter presents an ethnomethodological study of the real-world orderliness of note-taking. It shows that note-taking is a collaborative production of teachers and students: students take into account the details of teacher’s speech and gestures while teachers adjust their lecturing activities to the visible actions of note-taking students. The analysis, based primarily on the data from lectures for undergraduate students in a Russian university, shows that note-taking practices are interwoven into the choreography of classroom interaction, the local history of student learning, and the knowledge certification practices at universities. The preliminary description of the details of local material practices of note production and usage lays the foundation for the analysis of note-taking as a routinely organized and organizational situated activity.
In this chapter, we will continue to discuss Arab revolutions in a wide historical and theoretical context. However, this chapter discusses the Arab revolutions in some other aspects as the previous one, especially as regards issues of democratic transitions and value orientations. In this chapter, we do not preserve a chronological sequence and focus on some other aspects. In particular, we define common and distinctive features in the course of revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt and pay considerable attention to the turning points of the Arab revolutions, especially the July 2013 coup in Egypt. This chapter attempts to analyze different versions of the transition to democracy, to show the costs and perils of the striving to establish democracy quickly and by radical means (from time to time using the example of the recent events in Egypt). Our goal in this chapter is to analyze the issue of democratization of Egypt and some MENA countries within the contexts of globalization and regional history. In the final part of the chapter, we present a sketch of the revolutionary and post-revolutionary events in Yemen, Libya, and Syria. We have also added to this chapter a very representative Appendix titled “Letters from Tahrir.”
As for all health systems, in Russia, the demand for medical care is greater than its health system is able to guarantee the supply of. In this context, removing services from the state guaranteed package is an option that is receiving serious consideration. In this paper, we examine the attitudes of the Russian population to such a reform. Exploiting a widely- used methodology, we explore the population’s willingness to pay for cooperative health insurance. Distinguishing between socioeconomic and demographic factors, health-related indicators and risk aversion we find, consistent with other literature, positive income and risk aversion effects. We interpret the former as evidence that the Russian population is not opposed to the idea of progressive redistribution, to pool the costs of health-related risks; and the latter as evidence that risk-averse individuals demand more insurance coverage. In exploring these results further, we show that cognitive bias is important: overestimating the benefits leads to the purchase of additional insurance, while underestimating lowers demand for insurance. Our overall conclusion is that the introduction of a supplementary cooperative health insurance scheme in Russia could increase the accessibility of healthcare, lower the tendency for informal payments, incentivize the personal maintenance of good health and create a new source of funding for public healthcare.
Unlike traditional teachers, tutors now are much less able to confine their practice to the classroom setting. Herein, we address the challenges of actual tutoring practice at one Master’s degree program comprising offline and online learning activities along with student work placements. Building on the autoethnography and narrative analysis we highlight core themes structuring tutoring experience. We examined the challenges we met. We offer suggestions for tutors supporting students in a blended learning environment, and we argue acknowledgment of different roles and strategies applied by tutors across learning contexts make them more productive and less vulnerable towards conflicting messages of other actors involved in instructional communication.
Purpose: The purpose of the article consists in conceptual substantiation of automatization of the labor resources market in the age of the Internet of Things and development of recommendations for risk management of this process. Methodology: In this article, the process of automatization of the labor resources market in the age of the Internet of Things is studied with the help of the method of problem and logical analysis, modeling, formalization, and qualitative scenario analysis (it is used for determining the possible risks and perspectives of managing the risks). Results: As a result of studying the process of functioning and development of the online market of labor resources, its problems are determined, as well as perspectives and advantages of solving them with the help of the Internet of Things. A concept of automatization of the labor resources market with the help of the Internet of Things is developed and presented. The risks of automatization of the labor resources market with the help of the Internet of Things and perspectives of risk management are determined. Recommendations: It is substantiated that digital modernization of the labor resources market on the basis of the Internet of Things allows for authomatization and rationalization of behavior of this market's participants, ensuring quick optimal decisions with minimum resource intensity. The offered conceptual substantiation of automatization of the labor resources market in the age of the Internet of Things reflects the logic and essence of this process, and the stated perspectives of risk management allow preserving sustainability of the online market of labor resources in case of its authomatization and maximizing the effectiveness of this process. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to determine the barriers and perspective of formation of the E-healthcare system in modern Russia. Methodology: Empirical study of the process of formation of the E-healthcare system by the example of modern Russia is conducted with application of the complex of general scientific methods within the systemic approach (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and formalization), as well as special methods of economic science-the method of SWOT analysis and the method of modeling of socio-economic systems. Results: It is determined that formation of the E-healthcare system will allow increasing the global competitiveness of the healthcare system in modern Russia due to integration of medical organizations and medical services, increase of the quality of service during provision of medical services, and increase of accessibility of medical services. A barrier on the path of formation of the E-healthcare system in Russia is insufficient development of infrastructural provision (institutional and human infrastructure). Perspectives of formation of the E-healthcare system in Russia are connected to implementation of the top-priority direction of the program of formation of digital economy "Improvement of the processes of organization of medical help on the basis implementation of information technologies". Recommendations: For overcoming the determined drawback of this direction-weakness of its conceptual platform-a conceptual model of the E-healthcare system in modern Russia is developed and presented. This model is to ensure acceleration of the process of formation of the E-healthcare system in modern Russia. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
The current study investigates the mediating role of basic psychological need satisfaction at work (i.e. autonomy, relatedness, competence) in the relationship between engaging leadership (i.e., inspiring, strengthening, empowering, and connecting) and work engagement. Also, we are proposing and testing an additional need for meaningfulness that plays a similar mediating role. Data were collected from two independent samples from Indonesia (n = 607 state-owned company employees) and Russia (n = 384 civil servants). Results in both samples confirmed that basic psychological need satisfaction (autonomy, relatedness, competence, and meaningfulness) mediated the relationship between engaging leadership and work engagement. Multi-group analysis revealed that the parameters of the mediation model were invariant across both national samples, supporting the cross-national validity of the model. When the mediating role of the satisfaction of the need for meaningfulness was tested separately, this appeared only the case in the Russian and not in the Indonesian sample.
This article presents a short research report on the relationship between perceived antagonism in social relations
measured using the Belief in a Zero-Sum Game (BZSG) scale, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect.
Given that individuals who believe that life is like a zero-sum game are likely to perceive their daily interactions
with others as unfair, we expected that individuals with high BZSG experience more negative affect and fewer
positive one, resulting in a lower satisfaction with life. In addition, we examined whether country-level BZSG may
play a moderating role in these associations. Data were collected from student samples (N = 7146) in 35 countries.
Multilevel modelling revealed that perceived social antagonism in social relations is negatively associated with
satisfaction with life and that this relationship is mediated by both positive and negative affect at the individual
level. The relation of individual BZSG and negative affect on satisfaction with life were weaker in societies with
higher country-level BZSG, suggesting that the effects of BZSG may be less detrimental in these countries. These
findings extend previous knowledge about predictors of life satisfaction and suggest that social beliefs might also be
an important factor that influences subjective well-being. The contribution of the study is that the separate treatment
of life satisfaction and positive and negative affect may be helpful in many research situations, particularly from a
For several decades the Soviet academic psychology community was isolated from the West, yet after the collapse of the Soviet Union each of the 15 countries went their own way in economic, social, and scientific development. The paper analyses publications from post-Soviet countries in psychological journals in 1992–2017, i.e. 26 years after the collapse of the Soviet Union. Over the period in question, 15 post-Soviet countries had published 4986 papers in psychology, accounting for less than one percent of the world output in psychological journals. However, the growth of post-Soviet countries’ output in psychological journals, especially that of Russia and Estonia, is observed during this period. Over time, post-Soviet authors began to write more papers in international teams, constantly increasing the proportion of papers in which they are leaders and main contributors. Their papers are still underrepresented in the best journals as well as among the most cited papers in the field and are also cited lower than the world average. However, the impact of psychological papers from post-Soviet countries increases with time. There is a huge diversity between 15 post-Soviet countries in terms of contribution, autonomy, and impact. Regarding the number of papers in psychological journals, the leading nations are Russia, Estonia, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Georgia. Estonia is the leader in autonomy in publishing papers in psychological journals among post-Soviet countries. Papers from Estonia and Georgia are cited higher than the world average, whereas papers from Russia and Ukraine are cited below the world average. Estonia and Georgia also boast a high number of Highly cited papers.
The report presents the results of a global study of biomedical clusters. Its goal is to identify and analyse
the most successful international practices of promoting biomedical clusters, in which the cooperation
of universities, firms and clinics, combined with a developed infrastructure and public support measures
led to a significant improvement in the quality of healthcare.
The edition summarises the positive effects of biomedical clusters, describes their global landscape and
reveals the key success factors, which are then compared with the features of the Moscow International
Medical Cluster activities.
The publication is of practical interest to government officials, entrepreneurs, researchers, clinicians,
and other professionals involved in the development of biomedical clusters, and to anyone else interested
in healthcare and cluster policies.