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This study examined the role of different psychological coping mechanisms in mental and physical health during the initial phases of the COVID-19 crisis with an emphasis on meaning-centered coping.
A total of 11,227 people from 30 countries across all continents participated in the study and completed measures of psychological distress (depression, stress, and anxiety), loneliness, well-being, and physical health, together with measures of problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, and a measure called the Meaning-centered Coping Scale (MCCS) that was developed in the present study. Validation analyses of the MCCS were performed in all countries, and data were assessed by multilevel modeling (MLM).
The MCCS showed a robust one-factor structure in 30 countries with good test-retest, concurrent and divergent validity results. MLM analyses showed mixed results regarding emotion and problem-focused coping strategies. However, the MCCS was the strongest positive predictor of physical and mental health among all coping strategies, independently of demographic characteristics and country-level variables.
The findings suggest that the MCCS is a valid measure to assess meaning-centered coping. The results also call for policies promoting effective coping to mitigate collective suffering during the pandemic.
Changeability of personality over short-term intervals has increasingly become a focus of research. However, the role played by argumentation interventions in short-term variations has scarcely been examined.
In two experiments (Ns = 363 and 320), we investigated how processing positive and negative argumentation regarding extraversion (Study 1: watching a lecture; Study 2: elaborating self-invented arguments) affects self-reports on this trait and attitude towards it. The experiments included three waves of measurements with argument manipulation (in favour of or against extraversion) immediately prior to Time 2 (Study 2 also included a control group).
Mean-level changes in extraversion across time moments, measured with the longitudinal confirmatory factor analysis, were consistently negligible. Conversely, there were some indications that argumentation about extraversion could have immediate short-term effects on attitudes towards this trait. The random-intercept cross-lagged model showed that rank-order consistency stemmed from a trait-like intercept, which was particularly large for trait extraversion compared to the attitude. The autoregressive and cross-lagged effects of residual within-person variation were consistently small and mostly non-significant.
Our findings suggest that extraversion and the attitude towards it maintained their temporal continuity within three months, even under a single exposure to arguments pro and contra this trait.
In moral panic studies, pro-ana communities are usually considered folk devils. Namely, pro-ana culture is investigated as an object of ‘moral crusades’ led by scientists, physicians, activists, politicians, mass media, parents and many other social actors concerned about the epidemics of restrictive eating disorders. In this paper, I put aside this strand of moral panic research and discuss the role of pro-ana communities as facilitators of moral panic to bridge the macro-micro divide in scientific investigations of the pro-ana phenomenon. I propose to examine pro-ana people as entrepreneurs of the moral panic over obesity. This means that pro-ana communities can be analysed as creating and spreading contemporary legends on obesity in their communication processes. Furthermore, I discuss and exemplify the roles of pro-ana people as amplifiers, supporters and enforcers of this panic. In addition, while reconnecting micro and macro levels in the explanation of the pro-ana phenomenon, I contribute to the development of moral panic theory, as the application of the concept of ‘moral panic’ to pro-ana communities facilitates niche formation in biomedical social research.
This study is devoted to the search and analysis of the relationship between the personal authenticity of working specialists and the burnout syndrome. The problem is caused by the poorly studied and unclear nature of the possibility of attributing authenticity to the system of psychological resources that help in coping with burnout. The aim of the study was to determine the type and direction of the relationship between personal authenticity and professional burnout in the structure of psychological well-being of representatives of different professions: doctors, military personnel and sport coaches. The main hypothesis: personal authenticity acts as a negative predictor of professional burnout; particular hypotheses suggest that the severity of indicators of professional burnout is moderated by the type of profession, and authenticity contributes to the manifestations of professional burnout in representatives of all the studied professional groups, but to a different extent. The study was conducted using two diagnostic methods: the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Authenticity Scale by A. Wood. The sample consisted of 502 people, including 206 doctors, 123 sport coaches and 173 military personnel. The results showed the presence of a reliable correlation composition, in which authenticity (the Authentic Living subscale) is reliably and negatively associated with the components of burnout syndrome (Emotional exhaustion, Depersonalization, Reduction of achievements), and the «reverse side» of authenticity – Self-Alienation and Accepting External Influences – is positively associated with burnout. Regression analysis showed that in all three groups, authenticity is indeed a negative predictor of burnout, but in different ways. The strongest influence was found in the group of doctors who have the greatest contribution to the experience of burnout is Self-Alienation. In the group of coaches, only Authentic Living makes a negative contribution to the manifestations of professional burnout. Similar patterns were found in the group of military personnel, but the determination of connections was higher than that of the coaches, but still lower than that of the doctors. The hypotheses of the study were confirmed, and authenticity can be reasonably considered a psychological resource of coping with professional burnout.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, researchers recorded the growth of cyberchondria as a tendency to excessive and repetitive search for information about the symptoms of various diseases on the Internet. The aim of this study was to adapt the Russian version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale-12 (CSS-12). The cross-sectional study involved 624 respondents who completed the Russian-language versions of the CSS-12 and the Symptom Check List-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). The confirmatory factor analysis revealed the bifactor structure of the Russian CSS-12, suggesting both the general factor of cyberchondria and specific factors of excessiveness, distress, reassurance, and compulsion. The Russian CSS-12 demonstrated high internal reliability with an α-Cronbach coefficient of 0.95 for the total score. The convergent validity of the Russian CSS-12 was confirmed due to its correlations with psychopathology scores according to the SCL-90-R. The analysis of socio-demographic differences in the Russian CSS-12 indicated the absence of gender specificity of cyberchondria, but emphasized the negative links between cyberchondria and the age of respondents. The findings showed that the Russian CSS-12 is a reliable and valid instrument for population-based research of cyberchondria and needs further psychometric examination on various clinical samples.
Primary school age, which precedes adolescence, still remains a "white spot" of developmental psychology. Meanwhile, the level of resilience that will be achieved at this age will determine the intensity of the adolescent crisis. Difficult life situations of primary school children have their own specifics and require a special set of copings due to age-related tasks and integration into a new social environment. The focus of the present study is on the primary school child in the process of adapting to the school environment, to the new status of the student, to the surrounding reality outside of school, to the presence of a number of challenges and ways to cope with them. The article analyzes the theoretical and empirical modern research in the field of coping behavior, difficult life situations and psychological well-being of children of primary school age. The results of domestic and foreign studies that determine the relevance of the studied definitions and the need for their differentiation into groups are presented. The modern works of the past decade on the thematic areas of occurrence of difficult life situations, stress factors and ways of coping with them were systematized. The review paper results are presented by external and internal conditionality of coping behavior and recommendations for the provision of psychological assistance to cope with difficulties and stress in primary school age. Externalization is represented by a pool of studies that characterize externally determined difficult life situations, stress factors, and the corresponding coping strategies of primary school students: a) academic environment (educational activities, learning conditions, school rules, schedule); b) socio-economic situation (home environment, living conditions, territoriality, financial situation of the family); c) environment (nature, school yard, playgrounds); d) digital devices and technologies (digital tools, Internet, modern gadgets). In the internal genesis of stressors and difficult situations, coping strategies mainly occur in the context of interpersonal relationships: a) relationships with peers (bullying, conflicts); b) relationships with teachers/class teacher (trust/distrust, desire for approval, encouragement, search for protection); c) relationships with parents/close relatives (conflicts, misunderstandings, situations of deprivation). This analysis allows us to focus on the importance of highlighting the problem of coping behavior in primary school age, on age-related tasks, stressful conditions, difficulties, experiences, and corresponding adaptive and non-adaptive coping strategies.
Since 2012, with a view to strengthen the development of strategically important regions, Russia has established several federal agencies responsible for these territories. The essay investigates one of these agencies: the Ministry for the Development of the Far East (Ministerstvo Rossiiskoi Federatsii po razvitiyu Dal’nego Vostoka). We identify two main trade-offs associated with the governance approach used in Russia—between federal power and local knowledge, and between bureaucratic expertise and novel ideas—and examine how the ministry has dealt with these trade-offs and their consequences for the ministry’s performance.
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design in addition to the original ones, to help determine which theory best accounts for the results across multiple key outcomes and contexts. The present pre-registered empirical project compared the Implicit Puritanism account of intuitive work and sex morality to theories positing regional, religious, and social class differences; explicit rather than implicit cultural differences in values; self-expression vs. survival values as a key cultural fault line; the general moralization of work; and false positive effects. Contradicting Implicit Puritanism's core theoretical claim of a distinct American work morality, a number of targeted findings replicated across multiple comparison cultures, whereas several failed to replicate in all samples and were identified as likely false positives. No support emerged for theories predicting regional variability and specific individual-differences moderators (religious affiliation, religiosity, and education level). Overall, the results provide evidence that work is intuitively moralized across cultures.
Value-based decision making in complex environments, such as those with uncertain and volatile mapping of reward probabilities onto options, may engender computational strategies that are not necessarily optimal in terms of normative frameworks but may ensure effective learning and behavioral flexibility in conditions of limited neural computational resources. In this article, we review a suboptimal strategy – additively combining reward magnitude and reward probability attributes of options for value-based decision making. In addition, we present computational intricacies of a recently developed model (named MIX model) representing an algorithmic implementation of the additive strategy in sequential decision-making with two options. We also discuss its opportunities; and conceptual, inferential, and generalization issues. Furthermore, we suggest future studies that will reveal the potential and serve the further development of the MIX model as a general model of value-based choice making.
In Myanmar, the Citizenship Law of 1982 made the Rohingya “stateless.” The Rohingya consider Bangladesh a haven and take to the sea on rickety boats to cross borders. If they do, however, they become “illegal migrants.” Considering such laws unjust, local and international NGOs have been leading struggles to uphold the Rohingyas’ rights in Bangladesh. This article registers the struggles of these organizations against the production of illegality and statelessness. It discusses how they contest and negotiate the thick mix of politics, the local labor control regime, laws, and national regulations, and how in turn the refugees assert their agency through resilience and resistance, individually and collectively.
This study investigates work schedules in online labour markets, operating in 24/7 mode across spatial borders and
time zones. Focusing on largely hidden and invisible work of freelancers such as searching for jobs and communicating with clients, the study documents how platforms put pressures and constraints on freelancers’ time through the mechanism of task allocation. We use data on 241,582 timestamped messages posted by 29,759 unique users in 4082 contests on a leading Russian-language freelance platform to reveal how freelancers’ efforts to get a job
make them work nonstandard hours, including evenings, nights and weekends. Freelancers have to be responsive
and adapt their schedules to clients’ needs. Freelancers who live in time zones which differ from their clients are
particularly disadvantaged, working a greater proportion of nonstandard hours. The findings emerging from the study
contribute to current debates on the gig economy and a new time-work discipline.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy which modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries/regions (N = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vs. both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world.
Regional authorities consider the expediency of developing a new cargo transportation hub in the region in which it would provide transshipment services. It is considered that each transportation operator working in the region will use these services only if they are competitive with the currently existing ones. This competitiveness for a particular cargo means that the total transportation tariff for moving this cargo does not exceed (substantially or in principle) the (minimal) currently existing one as a result of including a transshipment via the hub in the transportation scheme for the cargo. A verifiable sufficient condition for the transshipment service competitiveness is proposed. Its verification consists of establishing the solvability of a system of linear inequalities being part of the system of constraints in the problem of finding optimal competitive transshipment tariffs for a set of cargoes expected to be moved via the hub. The latter problem is formulated as a quadratic programming one.
Ensemble representations are often described as efficient tools when summarizing features of multiple similar objects as a group. However, it can sometimes be more useful not to compute a single summary description for all of the objects if they are substantially different, for example when they belong to entirely different categories. It was proposed that the visual system can efficiently use the distributional information of ensembles to decide whether simultaneously displayed items belong to single or several different categories. Here we directly tested how the feature distribution of items in a visual array affects an ability to discriminate individual items (Experiment 1) and sets (Experiments 2–3) when participants were instructed explicitly to categorize individual objects based on the median of size distribution. We varied the width (narrow or fat) as well as the shape (smooth or two-peaked) of distributions in order to manipulate the ease of ensemble extraction from the items. We found that observers unintentionally relied on the grand mean as a natural categorical boundary and that their categorization accuracy increased as a function of the size differences among individual items and a function of their separation from the grand mean. For ensembles drawn from two-peaked size distributions, participants showed better categorization performance. They were more accurate at judging within-category ensemble properties in other dimensions (centroid and orientation) and less biased by superset statistics. This finding corroborates the idea that the two-peaked feature distributions support the “segmentability” of spatially intermixed sets of objects. Our results emphasize important roles of ensemble statistics (mean, range, distribution shape) in explicit visual categorization.
Why does a regime that is predominantly characterised by conservative ideology introduce opioid substitution therapy (OST), a liberal policy? This article applies the Multiple Streams Framework (MSF) to examine the introduction of OST in Belarus. Methodologically, the research draws on qualitative content analysis of drug policy documents and reports as well as on interviews. Results show how an increased HIV prevalence among injecting drug users opened a policy window in the problem stream. The increase in HIV cases could be used by a network of global and local policy entrepreneurs to frame OST as a public health policy instead of a drug policy measure. Findings suggest that, in nondemocratic regimes, global policy entrepreneurs can play a dominant role in introducing new policy ideas. However, the sustainability of the policy change remains questionable when acquiescence by key policymakers is lacking.
Previous studies have shown that ambivalent gender attitudes are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. However, most of these studies have primarily considered ambivalent attitudes toward women and attitudes toward gay men, and have been carried out in countries with progressive laws regarding homosexuality. In this study, we examined the connection between ambivalent attitudes toward men and women and attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women in countries with conservative sexual legislation. In the first study, participants were residents of Russia (N = 163) and Kazakhstan (N = 194), while the second study used residents of Russia (N = 496) and Belarus (N = 123). Results indicated that benevolent attitudes predicted attitudes toward gays and lesbians better than the hostile ones. At the same time, attitudes toward men and women similarly predicted attitudes toward gays and lesbians. These patterns were manifested among different components of attitudes toward homosexuals. The results are discussed within the social context of the countries.
Background: Although there are increasing concerns on mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic,
no large-scale population-based studies have examined the associations of risk perception of COVID-19 with
emotion and subsequent mental health.
Methods: This study analysed cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the PsyCorona Survey that included
54,845 participants from 112 countries, of which 23,278 participants are representative samples of 24 countries
in terms of gender and age. Specification curve analysis (SCA) was used to examine associations of risk
perception of COVID-19 with emotion and self-rated mental health. This robust method considers all reasonable
model specifications to avoid subjective analytical decisions while accounting for multiple testing.
Results: All 162 multilevel linear regressions in the SCA indicated that higher risk perception of COVID-19 was
significantly associated with less positive or more negative emotions (median standardised β=-0.171, median
SE=0.004, P<0.001). Specifically, regressions involving economic risk perception and negative emotions
revealed stronger associations. Moreover, risk perception at baseline survey was inversely associated with
subsequent mental health (standardised β=-0.214, SE=0.029, P<0.001). We further used SCA to explore whether
this inverse association was mediated by emotional distress. Among the 54 multilevel linear regressions of
mental health on risk perception and emotion, 42 models showed a strong mediation effect, where no significant
direct effect of risk perception was found after controlling for emotion (P>0.05).
Limitations: Reliance on self-reported data.
Conclusions: Risk perception of COVID-19 was associated with emotion and ultimately mental health. Interventions on reducing excessive risk perception and managing emotional distress could promote mental health.
В данной статье представлен анализ и общая таксономия межгрупповых идеологий, а также представлен список их индикаторов. Эта таксономия связана с восемью идеологиями, которые первоначально были изложены в ранних работах. Эти идеологии были созданы на основе трех измерений межкультурных отношений: сохранение культуры; социальное участие; и относительная власть. Предлагаемая здесь таксономия межгрупповых идеологий следует этим трем измерениям, которые связаны с двумя проблемами: (i) отношение к культурному многообразию; и (ii) формы инклюзии этнокультурных групп в более широкое общество (включая вопрос о групповой иерархии). Можно оценить, как эти проблемы решаются, используя четыре индикатора: (1) приветствие различий, (2) статус групп, (3) возможности для социальной интеракции и (4) способ обеспечения единства общества. Ориентация на эти индикаторы позволяет понять, какие межгрупповые идеологии, охватывающие межкультурные установки и межгрупповые отношения, существуют в странах, и описать их.
Eye-tracking is widely used in research of attentional strategies in tasks with visual representations. Strategies improve with learning and many have examined differences in attention allocation between experts and novices. Research show that when math problems are presented on the screen with response options, novices fixated more on response options that included distractors, whereas experts fixated more on the math problem and the correct answer. If experts and novices apply their attention on different parts of the scree these strategy differences would also be observable when comparing high and low performers. Participants (N = 26; 20-30 years), were non-math university majors who completed the Parametric Math Task (PMT; Konopkina, 2019) while their eye movements were recorded in a remote head-free-to-move mode. The PMT contains mathematical problems of addition, subtraction, multiplication and division with three levels of difficulty. Individuals who scored above median were high performers and below were considered as low performers. Data were analysed by evaluating dwell time (total duration of fixation) to the math problem area (top of screen) and response options areas (bottom of screen). Results showed that high performers and low performers were significantly different in their dwell times for two interest areas: problem area and distractor responses (problem area: p = 0.029, Cohen’s d = 0.92; distractor responses: p = 0.018, Cohen’s d = 0.99). Findings indicate that high performers spent significantly more time on the math problem area of the screen whereas low performers spent more time on distractor options. In educational practice, knowledge of looking times and locations may be indicative of strategies used by the problem solvers.