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How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design in addition to the original ones, to help determine which theory best accounts for the results across multiple key outcomes and contexts. The present pre-registered empirical project compared the Implicit Puritanism account of intuitive work and sex morality to theories positing regional, religious, and social class differences; explicit rather than implicit cultural differences in values; self-expression vs. survival values as a key cultural fault line; the general moralization of work; and false positive effects. Contradicting Implicit Puritanism’s core theoretical claim of a distinct American work morality, a number of targeted findings replicated across multiple comparison cultures, whereas several failed to replicate in all samples and were identified as likely false positives. No support emerged for theories predicting regional variability and specific individual-differences moderators (religious affiliation, religiosity, and education level). Overall, the results provide evidence that work is intuitively moralized across cultures.
Ensemble representations are often described as efficient tools when summarizing features of multiple similar objects as a group. However, it can sometimes be more useful not to compute a single summary description for all of the objects if they are substantially different, for example when they belong to entirely different categories. It was proposed that the visual system can efficiently use the distributional information of ensembles to decide whether simultaneously displayed items belong to single or several different categories. Here we directly tested how the feature distribution of items in a visual array affects an ability to discriminate individual items (Experiment 1) and sets (Experiments 2–3) when participants were instructed explicitly to categorize individual objects based on the median of size distribution. We varied the width (narrow or fat) as well as the shape (smooth or two-peaked) of distributions in order to manipulate the ease of ensemble extraction from the items. We found that observers unintentionally relied on the grand mean as a natural categorical boundary and that their categorization accuracy increased as a function of the size differences among individual items and a function of their separation from the grand mean. For ensembles drawn from two-peaked size distributions, participants showed better categorization performance. They were more accurate at judging within-category ensemble properties in other dimensions (centroid and orientation) and less biased by superset statistics. This finding corroborates the idea that the two-peaked feature distributions support the “segmentability” of spatially intermixed sets of objects. Our results emphasize important roles of ensemble statistics (mean, range, distribution shape) in explicit visual categorization.
News events with global appeal such as the COVID-19 pandemic, terrorist attacks, mass shootings, plane crashes, and earthquakes are flagship examples of journalistic role performance in action. But so are more ordinary developments like G20 summits, presidential speeches, parliamentary sessions, council meetings, daily crime news, judicial processes, protests, and industry reports. All kinds of news stories and story angles can, at some point or under certain circumstances, serve as exemplars of how the interventionist, loyal-facilitator, watchdog, civic, service, and infotainment roles not only manifest in practice, but also co-exist and interact across and within cultures, topics, types of newspapers, and even single news stories.
In this book, we analyzed how professional journalism roles materialize in print news in different organizational, institutional, and social settings, examining journalistic practice under the umbrella offered by the multidimensional concept of role performance. We have made a case for the ever-changing, fluid, and dynamic nature of journalistic roles, which are activated and deactivated by certain triggers, events, and circumstances, showing the extent to which news stories in a given country exhibit indicators of one or more of them.
The first year of college is a stressful life period connected with the experience of loneliness, isolation and depression since the majority of freshmen can no longer maintain an equally close relationship with school friends and family. Social networks have become a significant part of students' daily lives and might be an effective tool for maintaining relationship and reducing loneliness. There are contradictory results concerning the relationship between social networks sites (SNS) use and feelings of loneliness.
A four-week experiment was conducted to study the effect of SNS on feelings of social and emotional loneliness across freshmen. The treatment group (n = 40) took a break from SNS, while the control group (n = 37) used SNS as usual.
Comparison of the treatment and control groups showed that quitting SNS does not change either feeling of social/emotional loneliness. This paper also found that feelings of social and emotional loneliness did not depend on freshmen's positive/negative attitudes toward being alone.
This study is one of the few that uses experimental design to study the effects of using social networks on the psychological state of students in the context of higher education. The results showed that refusing SNS use can have a positive potential for psychological well-being of freshmen since solitude can be used by them as time for self-discovery and self-development. According to the results, social networks neither increase nor decrease the feeling of loneliness, and offline learning and communication environment plays a more significant role in the adaptation of freshmen. These results allow to take a new look at the studies related to the relationship between SNS use and loneliness and the role of social networks in the adaptation of freshmen.
The European migrant crisis imposed a challenge to the scientific community to study migration processes, the adaptation of migrants and society to each other, as well as to develop the methodology of these processes. This process became a challenge for the social sphere of European states, which are interested in the speedy employment of migrants. The labor influx can have both positive and negative consequences for the economy of the host state. The study aims at distinguishing the socio-psychological factors of successful migrants’ adaptation. The methods of research include theoretical analysis, the method of expert evaluation, and factor analysis. The results confirmed the existing hypothesis that socio-psychological training should take several aspects into account during the work with a traumatic experience through the symbolic space, including a platform for the dialogue between the local population and migrants, linking the client with the meaning forming characteristics of individuals. The authors pay special attention to the prerequisites for adaptation and propose a psychological board game to form a symbolic transition space for cross-cultural dialogue and increase knowledge about the adaptation processes for migrants and the local population.
In order to broaden our understanding of journalism as a complex but meaningfully practiced profession, the main goal of this chapter is to map the general differences and similarities in journalistic role performance—specifically in relation to the presence of the interventionist, watchdog, loyal-facilitator, service, infotainment, and civic roles—across and within 18 countries from Asia, Europe, Latin America, and North America. We provide a descriptive overview of the results and trends identified in our project, focusing on the extent to which commonalities of traditional geographies, media system characteristics, and normative frameworks of professional roles hold true in journalistic performance.
How does peripherality challenge methodology and theory-making? This book examines how the peripheral can be incorporated into ethnographic research, and reflects on what it means to be on the periphery—ontologically and epistemologically. Starting from the premise that clarity and fixity as ideals of modernity prevent us from approaching that which cannot be easily captured and framed into scientific boundaries, the book argues for remaining on the boundary between the known and the unknown in order to surpass this ethnographic limit. Its ethnographic case studies engage with a series of empirical and theoretical issues, including: What is at the centre and what is at the periphery of what we do? How can we represent what lies beneath the threshold of verbal reasoning, or does not respond to the criteria for widely recognised forms of knowledge? Does learning entail unlearning? Peripheral Methodologies shows that peripherality is not only to be seen as a marginal condition, but rather as a form of theory-making and practice that incorporates reflexivity and experimentation.
Research on individual differences in the fields of chronobiology and chronopsychology mostly focuses on two – morning and evening – chronotypes. However, recent developments in these fields pointed at a possibility to extend chronotypology beyond just two chronotypes. We examined this possibility by implementing the Single- Item Chronotyping (SIC) as a method for self-identification of chronotype among six simple chart options il- lustrating the daily change in alertness level. Of 2283 survey participants, 2176 (95%) chose one of these op- tions. Only 13% vs. 24% chose morning vs. evening type (a fall vs. a rise of alertness from morning to evening), while the majority of participants chose four other types (with a peak vs. a dip of alertness in the afternoon and with permanently high vs. low alertness levels throughout the day, 15% vs. 18% and 9% vs. 16%, respectively). The same 6 patterns of diurnal variation in sleepiness were yielded by principal component analysis of sleepiness curves. Six chronotypes were also validated against the assessments of sleep timing, excessive daytime sleepi- ness, and abilities to wake or sleep on demand at different times of the day. We concluded that the study results supported the feasibility of classification with the 6 options provided by the SIC.
This work is devoted to the methodology for identifying structurally
close objects of the type “country_year” based on a system of indicators characterizing
the state capacity 1996–2015. A comparison of clustering methods
(including hierarchical clustering) with methods of analyzing patterns based on
a pairwise comparison of indicators, ordinal-fixed and ordinal-invariant pattern
clustering, is proposed. The possibility of sharing the methods of clustering and
pattern analysis to obtain interpretable results from the point of view of political
science is demonstrated. Groups of countries with similar development paths by
reference years on the basis of a dynamic analysis of patterns are identified. The
dynamic change in state capacity (from the point of view of the selected indicator
system) of 166 countries of the world is determined.
Two studies examined factors that would influence people’s preferences for interaction with a perpetrator of sexism. In Study 1 (n = 348), participants preferred to interact (being friends or developing a relationship) with an intelligent person regardless of whether or not that person was sexist. Study 2 (n = 614) replicated this finding and confirmed that where a perpetrator had a high level of intelligence, people were more willing to interact with them, regardless of the perpetrator’s sex and the perceived commission or non-commission of sexist behavior. Moreover, Study 2 provides evidence that participants’ hostile sexism beliefs are a significant covariate of a willingness to interact with unintelligent women. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the understanding of person perception.
В центре внимания данной монографии находятся дестабилизационные процессы, протекающие в модернизирующихся социально-политических системах. Настоящая работа представляет собой попытку учесть, насколько это возможно, влияние демографических, культурных, политических и экономических факторов на дестабилизацию такого рода систем. Монография состоит из трех частей. В первой части рассматриваются теоретические аспекты модернизации стран мир-системной периферии и полупериферии, а также связь модернизационных процессов с дестабилизационными. Во второй части представлены результаты количественного анализа и моделирования социально-политической динамики модернизирующихся систем. Наконец, в третьей части анализируется социально-политическая динамика отдельных стран и регионов. Монография будет интересна не только специалистам, но и всем, кто интересуется дестабилизационными процессами и революциями, их причинами, факторами и механизмами.
The article describes the development of local self-government in Russia over the past three decades. Stands on the basis of the ideas of J.C. Stott about the good intentions of the state attempt not only to generalize the description of the changes, but also to reconstruct the logic of the legislator was made. The post-Soviet Russian Central government as much as possible separated itself from local self-government, using municipalities as a protection against the population claiming social guarantees. This is largely why local self-government in the 90s - early 2000s was quite independent and extremely diverse. The history of transformation of Russian local self-government over the past 20 years can be described as an attempt to restore local order by the Central government and restore social justice in the interpretation of the rent-oriented part of the population in a fairly high passivity of residents and a gradual transformation of the settlement structure. In the current reality, this restoration of order has resulted in the simplification and de facto nationalization of local self-government (in the near future, formal nationalization is also expected).
However, when local government is integrated into a unitary state structure, it is separated from the population itself, and the transparency of independent socio-economic processes in society for municipal managers is reduced.
The present article aims to assess psychometric characteristics of the Russian version of the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2). This questionnaire measures five basic personality traits, as well as three facets for each trait. The data were collected online, with a total sample of 1,787 people (31.9% of men) aged from 14 to 54 years (M = 26.31; SD = 7.76). The study covered more than ten regions of the Russian Federation. The factorial structure of the BFI-2 was examined using the principal component analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and random intercept exploratory factor analysis. The five-factor structure of the BFI-2 was confirmed both at the trait and facet levels. The analysis of measurement invariance revealed that the Russian BFI-2 demonstrates strict equivalence across sex, which makes it possible to compare raw scores of the questionnaire when assessing sex differences. The results on sex differences obtained in this study were consistent with the extant findings published in the literature. Across various BFI-2’s subscales, internal consistency measured by the Cronbach’s alpha and McDonald’s omega was satisfactory, good, or excellent. A scale discrimination test (Ferguson’s delta in the adaptation by M. Hankins) was high which shows the questionnaire's capability to distinguish individuals with various manifestations of a domain or facet. Therefore, the Russian version of the BFI-2 is a reliable and valid tool for measuring the basic traits and facets of personality.
Objective. To analyze and summarize the results obtained in various social sciences regarding the emergence and spread of prejudice.
Background. Prejudice is a complex issue, which is represented in different spheres of social science. In psychology, researchers analyzed individual or group-based factors, while in economics and sociology they investigate objective indicators of the socioeconomic development at the country-level. Today the data in the mentioned fields are not integrated.
Conclusions. Previous studies showed that GDP might indicate a significant factor in reducing bias, but only in countries with low social inequality or stable economic growth. Moreover, people with lower socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to the consequences of economic and socio-political changes. Psychological factors, in particular, the perceived inequality or intergroup threat defined additional perspective in the explanation of the relationship between objective socioeconomic indicators and the level of prejudice. In addition, the ideological attitudes (e.g., system justification) also influence how perceived inequality or threat, and bias. These findings are used to define future directions for research related to the integration of objective socio-economic indicators and psychological variables to analyze the nature of prejudices.
Using mathematical modeling, we consider the phenomenon of singularity in the biological and social history. It is shown that hyperbolic trends in biological and social evolution can be explained by transitional processes that accompany the expansion of ecological niches due to periodically occurring revolutionary innovations. During these periods, strong positive feedbacks are actualized, leading to hyperbolic growth. However, this growth is then inhibited, and the system goes into a new qualitative state. Then, there is a relatively slow development of the updated system with a gradual accumulation of quantitative characteristics and a new innovative breakthrough. This cycle then repeats multiple times. In this regard, the system’s hyperbolic growth trends indicate the transitivity of its current state, while the time of singularity in this hyperbolic trend indicates the end of the transition process.