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The purpose of this paper is to analyze the relationship between social capital and subjective ranking of household economic well-being in transition countries. The current study tests whether the performance of formal institutions moderates this link.
The analyses are based on the data from the second wave of the Life in Transition Survey. The measures “generosity of welfare policy (social safety nets)” and “ability of formal institutions to control inflation” were provided by the Bertelsmann Transformation Index Project. The study uses four measures of social capital: trust in family, trust in friends and acquaintances, trust in most people, the number of support sources. To test the hypotheses, the study employs mixed-effects regression models.
The study indicates a significant positive effect of social capital on subjective household well-being. Formal institutions do not have a significant effect on subjective ranking of household well-being. The evidence on institutions as moderators rejects the substitution effect between formal institutions and social capital. Higher generosity of welfare policy institutions and higher ability of formal institutions to control inflation strengthen the positive effect of particular trust (trust in family and trust in friends and acquaintances) on subjective ranking on the ladder of social standing (subjective ranking of household well-being), which is in line with the “crowding in” theory.
The paper adds on the limited research on transition countries. The paper contributes to the discussion on “crowding in” and “crowding out” effects of formal institutions on social capital.
The purpose of the work is to determine the regularities and tendencies of globalization of education in the conditions of formation of the global knowledge economy, to compile forecasts of future development of this process, and to determine the conditions and factors of its acceleration and to develop recommendations for managing these factors. Methodology: The authors use theoretical (qualitative) methods of scientific research—systemic, problem, logical, and process analysis; and practical (quantitative) methods of scientific research—trend and regression analysis. Regression analysis is used for determining the dependence of the indicators of globalization of education on the indicators of formation of knowledge economy. As specialized indices of globalization of education are absent, and target statistical accounting of this process is not conducted, the research objects include universities from nine countries of the world, which show the highest global competitiveness according to the QS in 2018, and from Russia. Results: In the course of the research, the authors have not determined statistically significant influence of various indicators of knowledge economy (export of hi-tech, state expenditures for R&D and for education) on the indictors of globalization of education (global competitiveness of the leading national university, share of foreign lecturers and foreign students). This excludes mutual influence of knowledge economy and globalization of education and shows that this process is unidirectional—globalization of education stimulates the formation of the global knowledge economy. It is not possible to determine clear quantitative regularities due to statistical insignificance of the obtained regression models—however, the tendencies of globalization of education are found—reduction of the share of foreign lecturers and increase of the share of foreign students in 2016–2018, which reflect contradiction of this process and its slow rate. Recommendations: Framework recommendations are offered for managing the factors of globalization of education: development of remote education, adoption of international standards of education, issue of international diplomas, and increase of flexibility of the educational process.
The purpose of the article is to compare the models of state regulation of economic growth, connected to market optimization and counter-cyclical regulation, through the prism of their influence on population’s living standards and to determine the most optimal one according to the criterion of maximization of positive influence. Methodology: The authors use the method of regression analysis for determining the dependence of the life quality index in 2018 on the 2007 level, growth rate of GDP (model of market optimization), and depth of decline of GDP in the crisis period (2010) (model of counter-cyclical regulation). The research objects include 16 developed and developing countries that are peculiar for the highest living standards as of 2018–8 countries implement the model of market optimization and 8 countries implement the model of counter-cyclical regulation. Results: It is concluded that maximization of advantages for the global economy, connected to increase of population’s living standards, requires the model of counter-cyclical regulation, which envisages limitation of growth rate of economy in the period of its rise for leveling the following cyclical fluctuations–minimization of crisis in the period of decline. The alternative model of market optimization is undesired, as it hinders the achievement of global goals in the sphere of sustainable development, reducing population’s living standards. Recommendations: It is shown that practical implementation of global goals in the sphere of sustainable development envisages unification of the practice of national state regulation of economic growth for optimizing the growth of the modern global economy. The authors’ recommendations for this are offered.
People can store thousands of real-world objects in visual long-term memory with high precision. But are these objects stored as unitary, bound entities, as often assumed, or as bundles of separable features? We tested this in several experiments. In the first series of studies, participants were instructed to remember specific exemplars of real-world objects presented in a particular state (e.g., open/closed; full/empty; etc), and then were asked to recognize either which exemplars they had seen (e.g., I saw this coffee mug), or which exemplar-state conjunctions they had seen (e.g., I saw this coffee mug and it was full). Participants had a large number of within-category confusions, for example misremembering which states went with which exemplars, while simultaneously showing strong memory for the features themselves (e.g., which states they had seen; which exemplars they had seen). In a second series of studies, we found further evidence of independence: participants were very good at remembering which exemplars they had seen independently of whether these items were presented in a new or old state, but the same did not occur for features known to be truly holistically represented. Thus, we find through two lines of evidence that the features of real-world objects that support exemplar discrimination and state discrimination are not bound, suggesting visual objects are not inherently unitary entities in memory.
The Big Five Inventory–2 (BFI-2) is a recently published 60-item questionnaire that measures personality traits within the five-factor model framework. An important aspect of the BFI-2 is that it measures the traits at both the domain and facet levels and also controls acquiescence bias via the balanced number of true- and false-keyed items across the domains and facets. The current research evaluates factorial measurement invariance of a Russian version of the BFI-2 across sex and age within samples of 1,024 university students (Study 1) and 1,029 Internet users (Study 2). Across these samples, men scored lower on the domains of negative emotionality and agreeableness and slightly higher on extraversion. Sex differences were also obtained on various facets. In the Internet sample, age correlated modestly with several Big Five domains in accordance with the well-documented maturity principle. The newly developed Russian version of BFI-2 showed good reliability and validity across both samples. Moreover, random intercept exploratory factor analyses showed that the BFI-2 displayed a hierarchical five-domain-15-facet structure that demonstrated strict measurement invariance across sex and age.
The purpose of the article is to develop scenarios of develop8 ment of the modern global economy with various growth poles and to determine the 9 optimal new trajectory of its development. Methodology: In order to determine the 10 current growth poles of the modern global economy, the authors use the methods of 11 regression and factor analysis (for assessing the contribution of various economic 12 spheres into formation of the global GDP and growth rate of the global economy. 13 The empirical base of the research is statistical data of the World Bank and the 14 International Monetary Fund. Results: Scenarios of development of the modern 15 global economy are compiled with various growth poles—agriculture (source of 16 growth: Agro 4.0) industry (source of growth: Industry 4.0), innovations (source of 17 growth: high-tech), and service sphere (source of growth: e-commerce). These scenarios are compared through the prism of potential of growth (perspectives of 19 innovational development), sustainability of growth (ecological effectiveness), risk 20 level (susceptibility to crises), and probability. A conclusion is made that these 21 operations should not be necessarily viewed as alternative, and their complex 22 implementation will allow achieving the highest effectiveness of growth and 23 development of the modern global economy. Recommendations: a model of mul24 tipolar development of the modern global economy is recommended. The advan 25 tage of this model is diversity of poles and sources of growth of the global GDP, 26 systemic interaction of which ensures the emergence of the synergetic effect— 27 additional acceleration of the rate of economic growth.
The purpose of the article is to determine the current position of Russia in the modern global economic system through the prism of the methodology of the theory of growth poles of economic growth and to create a strategy of increasing the global competitiveness of the Russian economy and Russia’s becoming a new growth vector of the global economy. Methodology: The authors use the method of regression analysis for determining the dependence of the annual growth rate of the global GDP on the volume of Russia’s GDP in market prices, developing a strategy of increasing the global competitiveness of the Russian economy and Russia’s becoming a new growth vector of the global economy, and determining the growth poles of the Russian economy, with study of the influence of the volume of production in various spheres of national economy on annual growth rate of Russia’s GDP in market prices. The research is conducted in the period of post-crisis restoration of the Russian economy — 2009– 2018, on the basis of statistical data of the Federal State Statistics Service and the World Bank. Results: It is substantiated that Russia is a growth pole of the world economy. However, Russia’s potential is not fully implemented due to imperfection of the strategy of managing the competitiveness. Recommendations: For solving this problem, framework recommendations are offered for development and implementation of a new strategy of increasing the global competitiveness of the Russian economy and opening its potential as a growth vector of the global economy, aimed at activation of innovational development of industry on the basis of the sphere of Industry 4.0. Practical implementation of the developed strategy will allow increasing the investment attractiveness and using the resources for increasing the global competitiveness of the Russian economy and opening its potential as a growth vector of the global economy
The purpose of the work is to develop a new concept of social justice in the globalizing economy. Methodology: During development of a new concept of social justice in the globalizing economy, the authors use the global goals in the sphere of sustainable development, adopted by the UN in 2015 (for the period until 2030), which are the scientific and methodological platform of this research. Results: Comparative analysis of the methodology of provision of national justice and global justice is performed; it is determined that though the goals of provision of social justice are universal, the methodology of their achievement is different at the national and global levels. The methods of provision of global social justice include the credit and investment support for developing countries, agro-industrial innovations, innovations in healthcare, digital education, international migration, cultural globalization, international norms and standards of nature use, transition to alternative sources of energy, and independent international arbitrage. Recommendations: A new concept of social justice in the conditions of globalization of economy is developed and recommended for practical application. It is aimed at balancing the possibilities and provision of equal conditions for conducting economic activities of the participants of international economic relations. This concept is based on the global goals in the sphere of sustainable development and is implemented with the help of a specific (as compared to national concepts) methodology. Its result is maximization of the global well-being
: The purpose of the article is to determine the place and role of local entrepreneurial structures in the process of acceleration of growth of the modern global economy and to substantiate the preferential directions (stimulation or restraint) of state and supra-national regulation of further development of local entrepreneurship. Methodology: The authors use the method of regression analysis for determining the influence of gross added value that is created by local entrepreneurial structures on the annual growth rate of the global GDP. For obtaining the most precise and detailed results, the research is conducted for two time periods: before the global financial crisis (2000–2008) and after it (2010–2018), which allows achieving representativeness of both selections (number of observations for time rows is nine). The information and empirical base of the research is statistical data of the World Bank. Results: It is determined that local entrepreneurial structures do not directly stimulate the acceleration of growth of the modern global economy. This influence is predetermined by the growth of local economy, which is a structural item of the global economic system. Though in quantitative expression the growth rate of the modern global economy is not influenced by local entrepreneurial structures, their development stimulates the increase of quality of this growth, ensuring its stability and balance. Recommendations: It is shown that growth of the number and strengthening of positions of local entrepreneurial structures in local sectorial markets after the global financial crisis (2010–2018) reduce their susceptibility to future crises and increases economic security due to development of import substitution. That’s why the measures of state regulators should be oriented at stimulation of development of local entrepreneurial structures for accelerating the growth rate of the national economy. However, for acceleration of growth of the modern global economy it
The article continues the cycle of works devoted to the role of the home environment in the development of personal qualities necessary for interpersonal interaction. Casual communication is often associated with the distribution of various resources; this process requires personal qualities that not only promote justice receptivity, but also stimulate a tolerant attitude towards its violations. In the context of the characteristics of a friendly home environment, the ability to forgive is discussed. The sample included 590 students (M = 18.7, SD = 1.1, 477 girls and 113 boys). Multiple-scale questionnaires were used: Home Environment Functionality, Home Environment Relevance, and Home Attachment. The psychometric preparation of the Russian version of the Heartland Forgiveness Scale was carried out. As a result of adaptation and verification of the factor structure the Scale includes two subscales (Readiness to forgive and Lack of ruminations) and demonstrates good internal consistency reliability. The results demonstrated a high gender sensitivity. It was found that in the group of young women the characteristics of a friendly home are positively associated with the ability to forgive, and in the group of young men they are associated negatively. The greatest number of correlations is formed by the functional characteristics of the house, and in the group of young men also by attachment to the house. It is stated that in respect of young men the house realizes an intensifying function, and in respect of girls - ennobling; separation from the house is shown to develop the ability to forgive in the young men. It is concluded that the contribution of the home environment to the development of the ability to forgive is determined by the context of human development. Both forgiveness and unforgiveness are adaptive phenomena important for solving interpersonal and social tasks, the content of which is given by the gender of the respondents. The results are consistent with the concepts of moral development of L. Kohlberg and K. Gilligan.
This book presents the history of globalization as a network-based story in the context of Big History. Departing from the traditional historic discourse, in which communities, cities, and states serve as the main units of analysis, the authors instead trace the historical emergence, growth, interconnection, and merging of various types of networks that have gradually encompassed the globe. They also focus on the development of certain ideas, processes, institutions, and phenomena that spread through those networks to become truly global.
The book specifies five macro-periods in the history of globalization and comprehensively covers the first four, from roughly the 9th – 7th millennia BC to World War I. For each period, it identifies the most important network-related developments that facilitated (or even spurred on) such transitions and had the greatest impacts on the history of globalization.
By analyzing the world system's transition to new levels of complexity and connectivity, the book provides valuable insights into the course of Big History and the evolution of human societies.
This article contributes to the growing body of research on the increasing role of judicial systems in regulating politics and religion (‘judicialization of politics and religion’) across the globe. By examining how academic expertise is deployed in anti-extremist litigation involving Russia’s minority religions, this article reveals important processes involved in this judicial regulation, in particular when legal and academic institutions lack autonomy and consistency of operation. It focuses on the selection of experts and the validation of their opinion within Russia’s academia and the judiciary, and identifies patterns in the experts’ approach to evidence and how they validate their conclusions in the eyes of the judiciary. Academic expertise provides an aura of legitimacy to judicial decisions in which anti-extremist legislation is used as a means to control unpopular minority religions and to regulate Russia’s religious diversity. As one of the few systematic explorations of this subject and the first focused on Russia, this article reveals important processes that produce religious discrimination and the role that anti-extremist legislation plays in these processes.
Recent years have witnessed a significant growth in the Russian-speaking community in Montreal, Canada. However, little is currently known about the predictors of psychological adjustment in immigrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU). In this study we explored the expectations that this group of immigrants (N = 271) hoped to fulfill in their adopted society, the extent to which these expectations have been fulfilled, and the impact of fulfilled expectations on psychological adjustment. We found that the degree of fulfilled expectations was significantly associated with better psychological adjustment independent of personality traits, language proficiency, and acculturation. These findings contribute to the literature on cross-cultural adaptation of immigrants from the FSU and highlight the potential importance of expectations for the study of acculturation more generally.
Competition for resources is a fundamental characteristic of evolution. Auctions have been widely used to model competition of individuals for resources, and bidding behaviour plays a major role in social competition. Yet, how humans learn to bid efficiently remains an open question. We used model‐based neuroimaging to investigate the neural mechanisms of bidding behaviour under different types of competition. Twenty‐seven subjects (nine male) played a prototypical bidding game: a double action, with three “market” types, which differed in the number of competitors. We compared different computational learning models of bidding: directional learning models (DL), where the model bid is “nudged” depending on whether it was accepted or rejected, along with standard reinforcement learning models (RL). We found that DL fit the behaviour best and resulted in higher payoffs. We found the binary learning signal associated with DL to be represented by neural activity in the striatum distinctly posterior to a weaker reward prediction error signal. We posited that DL is an efficient heuristic for valuation when the action (bid) space is continuous. Indeed, we found that the posterior parietal cortex represents the continuous action space of the task, and the frontopolar prefrontal cortex distinguishes among conditions of social competition. Based on our findings, we proposed a conceptual model that accounts for a sequence of processes that are required to perform successful and flexible bidding under different types of competition.
Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine the perspectives of improving the system of emergency medical aid and services in the conditions of digital economy and to develop the algorithm of this system's work on the basis of the Internet of Things. Methodology: The methods of systematization, logical analysis, and block schemes are used. Results: As a result of studying the peculiarities of the applied universal algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services, current problems and their causal connections are determined. It is substantiated that in the conditions of digital economy there's a possibility for full-scale technological modernization of the system of emergency medical aid and services, which allows improving it due to complex solving of all determined topical problems. An algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services on the basis of the Internet of Things is developed. Recommendations: The offered algorithm is recommended for practical application, as it ensures the following advantages: Automatic call for emergency medical aid if necessary, substantial reduction of the period of patient's waiting for a transport vehicle for providing emergency medical aid and services, reduction and automatization of organizational procedures that accompany the process of provision of emergency medical aid and services, overcoming the deficit or absence of necessary medication for providing highly-effective emergency medical aid and services, and increase of competence of medical staff that provide emergency medical aid and services due to systemic collection of feedback from patients. These advantages allow guaranteeing timely provision of emergency medical aid and services and insurance payments for compensating the expenditures of medical organizations, thus increasing the effectiveness of work of the system of emergency medical aid and services. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ is an epic novel, considered one of the most significant works of Russian and world literature. The debate on the authorship of ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ had been surrounding the novel since its first release in 1928 by Mikhail Sholokhov, who was repeatedly accused of plagiarism. The supporters of the plagiarism theory often indicate that the real author of the novel is the Cossack writer, Fyodor Kryukov, who died before ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ was published. In the present study we applied the information-based similarity analysis (Yang et al., 2003a, Linguistic analysis of human heartbeats using frequency and rank order statistics. Physical Review Letters, 90: 108103; Yang et al., 2003b, Information categorization approach to literary authorship disputes. Physica A, 329, 473) and Burrows's Delta (Burrows, 2002, ‘Delta’: a measure of stylistic difference and a guide to likely authorship. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 17(3):267–87) to a corpus of Russian literature of XIX and XX centuries. We next used these two methods to compare ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’ to Sholokhov’s and Kryukov’s writings. It was found that Fyodor Kryukov writings are distinct from ‘And Quiet Flows the Don’, whilst Sholokhov’s writings being close to the Don novel. The results also highlight how both information similarity analysis and Delta analysis can be used Russian language.
Note-taking is an ordinary, common student practice at universities, which is rapidly changing under the influx of electronic technologies for recording and storing audio and visual educational materials. However, little attention has been paid to the actual organization of note-taking. This chapter presents an ethnomethodological study of the real-world orderliness of note-taking. It shows that note-taking is a collaborative production of teachers and students: students take into account the details of teacher’s speech and gestures while teachers adjust their lecturing activities to the visible actions of note-taking students. The analysis, based primarily on the data from lectures for undergraduate students in a Russian university, shows that note-taking practices are interwoven into the choreography of classroom interaction, the local history of student learning, and the knowledge certification practices at universities. The preliminary description of the details of local material practices of note production and usage lays the foundation for the analysis of note-taking as a routinely organized and organizational situated activity.
In this chapter, we will continue to discuss Arab revolutions in a wide historical and theoretical context. However, this chapter discusses the Arab revolutions in some other aspects as the previous one, especially as regards issues of democratic transitions and value orientations. In this chapter, we do not preserve a chronological sequence and focus on some other aspects. In particular, we define common and distinctive features in the course of revolutions in Tunisia and Egypt and pay considerable attention to the turning points of the Arab revolutions, especially the July 2013 coup in Egypt. This chapter attempts to analyze different versions of the transition to democracy, to show the costs and perils of the striving to establish democracy quickly and by radical means (from time to time using the example of the recent events in Egypt). Our goal in this chapter is to analyze the issue of democratization of Egypt and some MENA countries within the contexts of globalization and regional history. In the final part of the chapter, we present a sketch of the revolutionary and post-revolutionary events in Yemen, Libya, and Syria. We have also added to this chapter a very representative Appendix titled “Letters from Tahrir.”
As for all health systems, in Russia, the demand for medical care is greater than its health system is able to guarantee the supply of. In this context, removing services from the state guaranteed package is an option that is receiving serious consideration. In this paper, we examine the attitudes of the Russian population to such a reform. Exploiting a widely- used methodology, we explore the population’s willingness to pay for cooperative health insurance. Distinguishing between socioeconomic and demographic factors, health-related indicators and risk aversion we find, consistent with other literature, positive income and risk aversion effects. We interpret the former as evidence that the Russian population is not opposed to the idea of progressive redistribution, to pool the costs of health-related risks; and the latter as evidence that risk-averse individuals demand more insurance coverage. In exploring these results further, we show that cognitive bias is important: overestimating the benefits leads to the purchase of additional insurance, while underestimating lowers demand for insurance. Our overall conclusion is that the introduction of a supplementary cooperative health insurance scheme in Russia could increase the accessibility of healthcare, lower the tendency for informal payments, incentivize the personal maintenance of good health and create a new source of funding for public healthcare.