Address: 101000, Moscow, Armyanskiy per. 4, c2
Address for correspondence: 20 Myasnitskaya Ulitsa Moscow 101000 (School of Psychology)
School Head — Maria Falikman
Deputy Head — Natalia Tiurina
Deputy Head — Chumakova Maria
The literature on the consequences of academic inbreeding shows ambiguous results: some papers show that inbreeding positively influences research productivity measured by the quantity and quality of publications, while others demonstrate the opposite effect. There are contradictory results both in the studies of different countries and within countries. This variety of results makes it impossible to transfer the findings from one academic system to another, and in Russia this problem has been under-explored. This paper focuses on the relationship between inbreeding and publication activity among Russian faculty. The research was conducted using data from the ‘Monitoring of Educational Markets and Organizations’ survey. The results show that there is no significant effect of academic inbreeding on publication productivity: no substantial and robust differences in publication activity between inbreds and non-inbreds have been found. The paper finishes with a discussion of possible explanations inherent in the Russian academic system.
Employing a person-oriented approach to acculturation expectations held by Russian majority group members, we investigated the presence of groups of profiles and relationships between acculturation expectation profiles and intergroup attitudes. Applying latent profile analysis, we found three easy-to-interpret acculturation expectation profiles: biculturalism expectations, alternate-biculturalism expectations (with public—private domain differences in preference), and assimilation expectations. The subsequent comparative analysis showed that these profiles mainly differed in the extent of the desirability of maintenance of heritage culture, and adoption of the mainstream culture by immigrants only in private domains of life. The biculturalism expectation profile contained individuals who support the idea of a multicultural society. The alternate-biculturalism expectation profile contained individuals with slightly less emphasis on adoption of mainstream acculturation for immigrants, a distinction between preferences in the public and private domains of life, more focus on public domains, and less right-wing authoritarianism. The assimilation expectation profile contained individuals with a higher dangerous worldview and endorsement of discrimination, and lower support of a multicultural ideology, willingness to engage in intergroup contact, and desire of maintenance of heritage acculturation for immigrants. Our study demonstrated the value of a person-oriented approach in a population where subgroups differ in the domain dependence of their acculturation expectations.
This paper presents a cross-cultural study on the mediating role of implicit theories of innovativeness in the relationship between basic values and specific attitudes towards innovation. Modernized samples (399 Russians from Moscow and Novokuznetsk) and more traditional samples (194 Chechens and Ingushs from North Caucasus and 200 Tuvins from the Tuva Republic) within the Russian Federation answered Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) (Schwartz, 1992), measures of attitudes towards innovation (Lebedeva, Tatarko, 2009), and an Adjective Check List (Runco et al., 1993) adapted for measuring implicit theories of innovativeness in the current samples. Main findings include (1) a split in individual and social aspects of implicit theories of innovativeness, (2) different mediation of the effects of Openness to Change and Conservation values, and (3) differences in mediation models between the two samples. Implications of these findings for cross-cultural studies on innovativeness are discussed.
Background / introduction
The early eye tracking studies of Yarbus provided descriptive evidence that an observer’s task influences
patterns of eye movements, leading to the tantalizing prospect that an observer’s intentions could be
inferred from their saccade behavior. We investigate the predictive value of task and eye movement
properties by creating a computational cognitive model of saccade selection based on instructed task
and internal cognitive state using a Dynamic Bayesian Network (DBN). Understanding how humans
generate saccades under different conditions and cognitive sets links recent work on salience models of
low level vision with higher level cognitive goals. This model provides a Bayesian, cognitive approach to
top down transitions in attentional set in pre-frontal areas along with vector based saccade generation
from the superior colliculus.
Our approach is to begin with eye movement data that has previously been shown to differ across task.
We first present an analysis of the extent to which individual saccadic features are diagnostic of an
observer’s task. Second, we use those features to infer an underlying cognitive state that potentially
differs from the instructed task. Finally, we demonstrate how changes of cognitive state over time can
be incorporated into a generative model of eye movement vectors without resorting to an external
Internal cognitive state frees the model from the assumption that instructed task is the only factor
influencing observers’ saccadic behavior. While the inclusion of hidden temporal state does not
improve the classification accuracy of the model, it does allow accurate prediction of saccadic sequence
results observed in search paradigms.
Given the generative nature of this model, it is capable of saccadic simulation in real time. We
demonstrated that the properties from its generated saccadic vectors closely match those of human
observers given a particular task and cognitive state. Many current models of vision focus entirely on
bottom up salience to produce estimates of spatial ‘areas of interest’ within a visual scene. While a few
recent models do add top-down knowledge and task information, we believe our contribution is
important in three key ways. First, we incorporate task as learned attentional sets that that are capable
of self-transition given only information available to the visual system. This matches influential theories
of bias signals by Miller & Cohen (2001), and implements selection of state without simply shifting the
decision to an external homunculus. Second, our model is generative and capable of predicting
sequence artifacts in saccade generation like those found in visual search. Third, our model generates
relative saccadic vector information as opposed to absolute spatial coordinates. This matches more
closely the internal saccadic representation as they are generated in the superior colliculus.
A meta-analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between outgroup entitativity and prejudice. A quantitative analysis of 85 effect sizes from 33 independent samples showed a significant positive relationship between entitativity and prejudice (Fisher’s z = .414, 95% CI [.272, .557], p < .0001). Three possible moderators of the relationship between entitativity and prejudice were tested: conceptualization of the entitativity (essence-based entitativity scale, agency-based entitativity scale, common entitativity scale), the target of the prejudice, the measures of prejudice (attitudes, emotions, behavior towards outgroup). Results demonstrated that outgroup entitativity correlated with prejudice only when entitativity was conceptualized as an essence-based or common-based scale, and prejudice was measured as the attitude to the outgroup. The target of prejudice does not moderate the relationship between entitativity and prejudice.
It is intended in this study to present initial reliability and validity data for the Russian adaptation of the Multidimensional Inventory of Religious/Spiritual Well-being (MI-RSWB-R), as being related to personality factors and psychopathology. Therefore, the first version of the MI-RSWB-R was applied to a sample of 192 (147 females) nonclinical subjects, together with the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Symptom- Check-List (SCL-90-R). The original six-factor structure of the scale could be replicated for the MI-RSWB-R, which also provides satisfying psychometric properties. In accordance with previous research the RSWB total score was linked to more favorable personality traits such as Extraversion (r = .45), Openness to Experience (r = .39), and Agreeableness (r = .38), which was paralleled by substantial negative correlations with increased psychopathology. Our findings support the reliability and structural validity of the MI-RSWB-R as a standardized instrument for addressing the spiritual dimension in Russian populations. Further research in clinical surroundings is now recommended.
This article examines relationships between social identities and acculturation strategies of
Russians (the ethnic minority) in the Republic of North Ossetia–Alania (RNO-A). The sample
included 109 grandparent–parent–adolescent triads from ethnically Russian families (N =
327). We assessed acculturation strategies, ethnic and national identities (identification with
the Russian Federation), republican identity (with the RNO-A), regional identity (with North
Caucasus), and religious identity. EFA combined five identities in two factors, labeled Russian
ethnocultural identity (comprising ethnic, national, and religious identities) and North-Caucasian
regional identity (comprising identities involving the republic and region). The means of the
identity factors remained remarkably stable across generations, with a somewhat stronger
Russian ethnocultural identity. A structural equation model revealed that Russian ethnocultural
identity was a negative predictor of assimilation (the least preferred acculturation strategy),
whereas North-Caucasian regional identity was a positive predictor of integration (the most
preferred strategy) in all generations. We concluded that Russian ethnocultural identity is
important for maintaining the heritage culture whereas North-Caucasian regional identity
promotes participation of ethnic Russians in the multicultural North-Ossetian society.
Self-continuity—the sense that one’s past, present, and future are meaningfully connected—is considered a defining feature of personal identity. However, bases of self-continuity may depend on cultural beliefs about personhood. In multilevel analyses of data from 7,287 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations, we tested a new tripartite theoretical model of bases of self-continuity. As expected, perceptions of stability, sense of narrative, and associative links to one’s past each contributed to predicting the extent to which people derived a sense of self-continuity from different aspects of their identities. Ways of constructing self-continuity were moderated by cultural and individual differences in mutable (vs. immutable) personhood beliefs—the belief that human attributes are malleable. Individuals with lower mutability beliefs based self-continuity more on stability; members of cultures where mutability beliefs were higher based self-continuity more on narrative. Bases of self-continuity were also moderated by cultural variation in contextualized (vs. decontextualized) personhood beliefs, indicating a link to cultural individualism-collectivism. Our results illustrate the cultural flexibility of the motive for self-continuity.
Children use numbers every day and typically receive formal mathematical training from an early age, as it is a main subject in school curricula. Despite an increase in children neuroimaging studies, a comprehensive neuropsychological model of mathematical functions in children is lacking. Using quantitative meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, we identify concordant brain areas across articles that adhere to a set of selection criteria (e.g., whole-brain analysis, coordinate reports) and report brain activity to tasks that involve processing symbolic and non-symbolic numbers with and without formal mathematical operations, which we called respectively number tasks and calculation tasks. We present data on children 14 years and younger, who solved these tasks. Results show activity in parietal (e.g., inferior parietal lobule and precuneus) and frontal (e.g., superior and medial frontal gyri) cortices, core areas related to mental-arithmetic, as well as brain regions such as the insula and claustrum, which are not typically discussed as part of mathematical problem solving models. We propose a topographical atlas of mathematical processes in children, discuss findings within a developmental constructivist theoretical model, and suggest practical methodological considerations for future studies.
Identifying facial expressions is crucial for social interactions. Functional neuroimaging studies show that a set of brain areas, such as the fusiform gyrus and amygdala, become active when viewing emotional facial expressions. The majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies investigating face perception typically employ static images of faces. However, studies that use dynamic facial expressions (e.g., videos) are accumulating and suggest that a dynamic presentation may be more sensitive and ecologically valid for investigating faces. By using quantitative fMRI meta-analysis the present study examined concordance of brain regions associated with viewing dynamic facial expressions. We analyzed data from 216 participants that participated in 14 studies, which reported coordinates for 28 experiments. Our analysis revealed bilateral fusiform and middle temporal gyri, left amygdala, left declive of the cerebellum and the right inferior frontal gyrus. These regions are discussed in terms of their relation to models of face processing.
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms we identified thirty six eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation, and (b) norm violations. The majority of original articles (> 60%) used tasks related with fairness norms and decision-making, such as ultimatum game, dictator game or prisoner’s dilemma; the rest used tasks related to violation of moral norms, such as scenarios and sentences of moral depravity ratings etc. Using quantitative meta-analyses we report brain common and distinct brain areas that show concordance as a function of category. Specifically, concordance in ventromedial prefrontal regions is distinct to social norm representation processing, whereas concordance in right insula, dorsolateral prefrontal and dorsal cingulate cortices is distinct to norm violation processing. We propose a neurocognitive model of social norms for healthy adults, which could help guide future research in social norm compliance and mechanisms of its enforcement.
This book offers a comparative analysis of value and identity changes in several post-Communist countries. In light of the tremendous economic, social and political changes in former communist states, the authors compare the values, attitudes and identities of different generations and cultural groups. Based on extensive empirical data, using quantitative and qualitative methods to study complex social identities, this book examines how intergenerational value and identity changes are linked to socio-economic and political development. Topics include the rise of nationalist sentiments, identity formation of ethnic and religious groups and minorities, youth identity formation and intergenerational value conflicts
This book presents reports of a set of research conducted in the countries of Eastern and Central Europe, the Russian Federation, and Uzbekistan after the collapse of USSR and so-called socialist bloc in Eastern Europe. Until now, there has been relatively little empirical research devoted to the changing values and identities across countries and generations in this region. This book has sought to make a valuable contribution to this understudied field.
We set out to quantitatively evaluate the discordance between perceived and desired acculturation attitudes by immigrants in Russia in the eyes of host group members and consider relationships between this discordance and other intergroup attitudes. We used the coefficient of intrarater agreement as a measure of discordance between acculturation attitudes of the host population. The host population in Russia mostly preferred an assimilation-type of adjustment of immigrants but believed that immigrants prefer separation. Discordance between acculturation attitudes can have consequences for intergroup relations. Further investigation of the discordance can help to better understand the process of mutual accommodation and the evaluation of discordance can help to enhance this accommodation.
Inhibitory control is the stopping of a mental process with or without intention, conceptualized as
mental suppression of competing information because of limited cognitive capacity. Inhibitory control
dysfunction is a core characteristic of many major psychiatric disorders. Inhibition is generally
thought to involve the prefrontal cortex; however, a single inhibitory mechanism is insufficient for
interpreting the heterogeneous nature of human cognition. It remains unclear whether different
dimensions of inhibitory processes—specifically cognitive inhibition, response inhibition, and emotional
interference—rely on dissociated neural systems. We conducted systematic meta-analyses of
fMRI studies in the BrainMap database supplemented by PubMed using whole-brain activation
likelihood estimation. A total of 66 study experiments including 1,447 participants and 987 foci
revealed that while the left anterior insula was concordant in all inhibitory dimensions, cognitive
inhibition reliably activated specific dorsal frontal inhibitory system, engaging dorsal anterior cingulate,
dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parietal areas, whereas emotional interference reliably
implicated a ventral inhibitory system, involving the ventral surface of the inferior frontal gyrus and
the amygdala. Response inhibition showed concordant clusters in the fronto-striatal system, including
the dorsal anterior cingulate region and extended supplementary motor areas, the dorsal and
ventral lateral prefrontal cortex, basal ganglia, midbrain regions, and parietal regions. We provide
an empirically derived dimensional model of inhibition characterizing neural systems underlying different
aspects of inhibitory mechanisms. This study offers a fundamental framework to advance
current understanding of inhibition and provides new insights for future clinical research into
disorders with different types of inhibition-related dysfunctions.
Psychological essentialism is the layperson’s belief that social categories are natural and entitative. Studies have shown that essentialist beliefs are strongly connected with different types of prejudice. Previous research into essentialist beliefs predominantly used a variable-centered approach to investigate the relationship between essentialist beliefs and prejudice. Extending this research, we used a person-centered approach to explore the relationship between different essentialist beliefs related to sexual orientation and gender (naturalness, homogeneity, discreteness and informativeness). The study involved 282 (sample 1) and 194 (sample 2) respondents from Russia with different sexual orientations. Using latent profile analysis, we identified three distinct essentialist belief profiles, which are the same for both our target groups, gay men and lesbian women. We examined the relationships between belonging to essentialist belief profiles and social distance towards gay men and lesbian women. We found individuals from various profiles differed in levels of gender identification and right-wing authoritarianism. Individuals with relatively low levels of naturalness beliefs and high levels of essentialist beliefs about the social and psychological differences between gender groups and between heterosexuals and non-heterosexuals demonstrated greater social distance towards gay men and lesbian women compared to respondents with lower essentialist beliefs in the differences between groups.