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How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design in addition to the original ones, to help determine which theory best accounts for the results across multiple key outcomes and contexts. The present pre-registered empirical project compared the Implicit Puritanism account of intuitive work and sex morality to theories positing regional, religious, and social class differences; explicit rather than implicit cultural differences in values; self-expression vs. survival values as a key cultural fault line; the general moralization of work; and false positive effects. Contradicting Implicit Puritanism's core theoretical claim of a distinct American work morality, a number of targeted findings replicated across multiple comparison cultures, whereas several failed to replicate in all samples and were identified as likely false positives. No support emerged for theories predicting regional variability and specific individual-differences moderators (religious affiliation, religiosity, and education level). Overall, the results provide evidence that work is intuitively moralized across cultures.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion regulation strategy which modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries/regions (N = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vs. both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world.
Ensemble representations are often described as efficient tools when summarizing features of multiple similar objects as a group. However, it can sometimes be more useful not to compute a single summary description for all of the objects if they are substantially different, for example when they belong to entirely different categories. It was proposed that the visual system can efficiently use the distributional information of ensembles to decide whether simultaneously displayed items belong to single or several different categories. Here we directly tested how the feature distribution of items in a visual array affects an ability to discriminate individual items (Experiment 1) and sets (Experiments 2–3) when participants were instructed explicitly to categorize individual objects based on the median of size distribution. We varied the width (narrow or fat) as well as the shape (smooth or two-peaked) of distributions in order to manipulate the ease of ensemble extraction from the items. We found that observers unintentionally relied on the grand mean as a natural categorical boundary and that their categorization accuracy increased as a function of the size differences among individual items and a function of their separation from the grand mean. For ensembles drawn from two-peaked size distributions, participants showed better categorization performance. They were more accurate at judging within-category ensemble properties in other dimensions (centroid and orientation) and less biased by superset statistics. This finding corroborates the idea that the two-peaked feature distributions support the “segmentability” of spatially intermixed sets of objects. Our results emphasize important roles of ensemble statistics (mean, range, distribution shape) in explicit visual categorization.
Previous studies have shown that ambivalent gender attitudes are associated with attitudes toward homosexuals. However, most of these studies have primarily considered ambivalent attitudes toward women and attitudes toward gay men, and have been carried out in countries with progressive laws regarding homosexuality. In this study, we examined the connection between ambivalent attitudes toward men and women and attitudes toward gay men and lesbian women in countries with conservative sexual legislation. In the first study, participants were residents of Russia (N = 163) and Kazakhstan (N = 194), while the second study used residents of Russia (N = 496) and Belarus (N = 123). Results indicated that benevolent attitudes predicted attitudes toward gays and lesbians better than the hostile ones. At the same time, attitudes toward men and women similarly predicted attitudes toward gays and lesbians. These patterns were manifested among different components of attitudes toward homosexuals. The results are discussed within the social context of the countries.
Background: Although there are increasing concerns on mental health consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic,
no large-scale population-based studies have examined the associations of risk perception of COVID-19 with
emotion and subsequent mental health.
Methods: This study analysed cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the PsyCorona Survey that included
54,845 participants from 112 countries, of which 23,278 participants are representative samples of 24 countries
in terms of gender and age. Specification curve analysis (SCA) was used to examine associations of risk
perception of COVID-19 with emotion and self-rated mental health. This robust method considers all reasonable
model specifications to avoid subjective analytical decisions while accounting for multiple testing.
Results: All 162 multilevel linear regressions in the SCA indicated that higher risk perception of COVID-19 was
significantly associated with less positive or more negative emotions (median standardised β=-0.171, median
SE=0.004, P<0.001). Specifically, regressions involving economic risk perception and negative emotions
revealed stronger associations. Moreover, risk perception at baseline survey was inversely associated with
subsequent mental health (standardised β=-0.214, SE=0.029, P<0.001). We further used SCA to explore whether
this inverse association was mediated by emotional distress. Among the 54 multilevel linear regressions of
mental health on risk perception and emotion, 42 models showed a strong mediation effect, where no significant
direct effect of risk perception was found after controlling for emotion (P>0.05).
Limitations: Reliance on self-reported data.
Conclusions: Risk perception of COVID-19 was associated with emotion and ultimately mental health. Interventions on reducing excessive risk perception and managing emotional distress could promote mental health.
This article presents a short research report on the relationship between perceived antagonism in social relations
measured using the Belief in a Zero-Sum Game (BZSG) scale, life satisfaction, and positive and negative affect.
Given that individuals who believe that life is like a zero-sum game are likely to perceive their daily interactions
with others as unfair, we expected that individuals with high BZSG experience more negative affect and fewer
positive one, resulting in a lower satisfaction with life. In addition, we examined whether country-level BZSG may
play a moderating role in these associations. Data were collected from student samples (N = 7146) in 35 countries.
Multilevel modelling revealed that perceived social antagonism in social relations is negatively associated with
satisfaction with life and that this relationship is mediated by both positive and negative affect at the individual
level. The relation of individual BZSG and negative affect on satisfaction with life were weaker in societies with
higher country-level BZSG, suggesting that the effects of BZSG may be less detrimental in these countries. These
findings extend previous knowledge about predictors of life satisfaction and suggest that social beliefs might also be
an important factor that influences subjective well-being. The contribution of the study is that the separate treatment
of life satisfaction and positive and negative affect may be helpful in many research situations, particularly from a
In bilingualism research, there is a rapidly growing interest towards potential neuroprotective mechanisms against age-related cognitive decline, supported by dual and multiple language use. In this brief review, we discuss existing evidence, which generally suggests that bilingualism may foster neuroplastic changes resulting in beneficial consequences for the brain both at the structural level and at the functional one during later stages of life. First, we outline the interplay between the neural function and the bilingual experience. We then propose how bilingual and multilingual experience may protect the mind and the brain from the age-related cognitive decline and its consequences. We continue by discussing the notions of cognitive and brain reserve and contextualize existing findings from bilingualism literature with regard to this newly proposed reserve framework. We highlight how bilingualism-induced neural and cognitive changes may pave the way for the development of the neural foundations of reserve: both at the neuroanatomical and at the cognitive levels. We conclude our review by proposing possible models of bilingualism-induced successful aging.
Description: Visual working memory (VWM) is prone to interference from stored items competing for its limited capacity. These competitive interactions can arise from different sources. For example, one such source is poor item distinctiveness causing a failure to discriminate between items sharing common features. Another source of interference is imperfect binding, a problem of determining which of the remembered features belonged to which object or which item was in which location. In two experiments, we studied how the conceptual distinctiveness of real-world objects (i.e., whether the objects belong to the same or different basic categories) affects VWM for objects and object-location binding. In Experiment 1, we found that distinctiveness did not affect memory for object identities or for locations, but low-distinctive objects were more frequently reported at “swapped” locations that originally went with different objects. In Experiment 2 we found evidence that the effect of distinctiveness on the object-location swaps was due to the use of categorical information for binding. In particular, we found that observers swapped the location of a tested object with another object from the same category more frequently than with any of the objects from another category. This suggests that observers can use some coarse category-location information when objects are conceptually distinct. Taken together, our findings suggest that object distinction and object-location binding act upon different components of VWM.
Recently, Cleeremans et al. (2020a) presented their Self-Organizing metarepresentational account (SOMA) of consciousness. The theory unifies many other views and aptly paints a coherent picture of how a system like the human brain, can experience consciousness. In addition to SOMA, however, Attention Schema Theory of Consciousness (AST) also provides an account of both conscious experience and how a system comes to believe it has conscious experience, by combining different theories (Graziano, 2016, 2019). Despite the plenty of core features that are shared by the two views, here I would like to highlight a potential point of conflict, that I argue makes AST a better account of consciousness than SOMA, at least in its current form.
This N=173,426 social science dataset was collected through the collaborative COVIDiSTRESS Global Survey – an open science efort to improve understanding of the human experiences of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic between 30th March and 30th May, 2020. The dataset allows a cross-cultural study of psychological and behavioural responses to the Coronavirus pandemic and associated government measures like cancellation of public functions and stay at home orders implemented in many countries. The dataset contains demographic background variables as well as measures of Asian Disease Problem, perceived stress (PSS-10), availability of social provisions (SPS-10), trust in various authorities, trust in governmental measures to contain the virus (OECD trust), personality traits (BFF-15), information behaviours, agreement with the level of government intervention, and compliance with preventive measures, along with a rich pool of exploratory variables and written experiences. A global consortium from 39 countries and regions worked together to build and translate a survey with variables of shared interests, and recruited participants in 47 languages and dialects. Raw plus cleaned data and dynamic visualizations are available.
Im ersten Teil des Artikels werden die wichtigsten Abschnitte der Entwicklung der Vorstellung von der Person in der Geschichte der europäischen Kultur – die Antike, das Christentum, die Neue Zeit, die Philosophie des Personalismus, die philosophische Anthropologie von Max Scheler beschrieben. Vor diesem kulturhistorischen Hintergrund wird im zweiten Teil des Artikels der Beitrag zur Entwicklung der Idee der Person in der Existenzanalyse von Alfried Längle betrachtet.
Die Differenzierung der Erscheinungsformen der geistigen Dimension des Menschen zwischen dem Ich und der Person, die Systematisierung der Beschreibungen der Person als eines Phänomens des menschlichen Seins, die Vorstellungen von dem Dialog, als einem wesentlichen Merkmal der Person, und von dem inneren Dialog des Ichs und der Person bildeten die methodologische Grundlage für die anthropologisch begründete psychologische Theorie und für das System der Methoden der Beratung und der Psychotherapie. Es zeigt sich, dass die personalistischen Vorstellungen von A. Längle aufs engste mit der kulturhistorischen Tradition des Verständnisses das Wesens des Menschen in der europäischen Kultur verbunden sind und eine Konzeptualisierung der Idee der Person im psychologischen und psychotherapeutischen Diskurs darstellen.
Background. Personal authenticity, as the ability to be true to oneself, is traditionally studied in the perspective of its protective role for the individual, and is only beginning to be studied in relation to the surrounding world. In this study, it is suggested that authentic people may be more environmentally aware and concerned. The theoretical foundations were: person-centered approach, subject psychology, and the modern research of pro-environmental behavior.
Objective. We explored the links between authenticity and pro-environmental behavior within two ways of conceptualizing authenticity – person-centered and subject psychology, and also examined whether these connections are gender-related.
Design. 430 Russian students (Mage = 19.19; SDage = 1.22; 79.5% women) participated in the study. Authenticity was measured both by the revised Russian version of the Authenticity Scale, and a new tool, the Moscow Authenticity Scale, developed on the basis of subject psychology. To measure pro-environmental behavior, we created a new instrument, the Ecological Lifestyle Scale, comprising Social Activities and Ecological Self-restraint subscales.
Results. We present two new scales, the Moscow Authenticity Scale and the Ecological Lifestyle Scale, along with a modification of the Authenticity scale. It is found that women are more likely to exercise pro-environmental behavior than men; however, connections between personal authenticity and pro-environmental behavior are stronger in the male group. Authenticity, considered within the frame of subject psychology, better nuances the relations between personal authenticity and pro-environmental behavior than the person-centered model does.
Conclusion. Authenticity is associated with pro-environmental behavior, but does not predict it accurately enough. Future research of moderating or mediating variables is suggested.
The first year of college is a stressful life period connected with the experience of loneliness, isolation and depression since the majority of freshmen can no longer maintain an equally close relationship with school friends and family. Social networks have become a significant part of students' daily lives and might be an effective tool for maintaining relationship and reducing loneliness. There are contradictory results concerning the relationship between social networks sites (SNS) use and feelings of loneliness.
A four-week experiment was conducted to study the effect of SNS on feelings of social and emotional loneliness across freshmen. The treatment group (n = 40) took a break from SNS, while the control group (n = 37) used SNS as usual.
Comparison of the treatment and control groups showed that quitting SNS does not change either feeling of social/emotional loneliness. This paper also found that feelings of social and emotional loneliness did not depend on freshmen's positive/negative attitudes toward being alone.
This study is one of the few that uses experimental design to study the effects of using social networks on the psychological state of students in the context of higher education. The results showed that refusing SNS use can have a positive potential for psychological well-being of freshmen since solitude can be used by them as time for self-discovery and self-development. According to the results, social networks neither increase nor decrease the feeling of loneliness, and offline learning and communication environment plays a more significant role in the adaptation of freshmen. These results allow to take a new look at the studies related to the relationship between SNS use and loneliness and the role of social networks in the adaptation of freshmen.
This study estimates empirically derived guidelines for effect size interpretation for research in social psychology overall and subdisciplines within social psychology, based on analysis of the true distributions of the two types of effect size measures widely used in social psychology (correlation coefficient and standardized mean differences). Analysis of empirically derived distributions of 12,170 correlation coefficients and 6,447 Cohen’s d statistics extracted from studies included in 134 published meta-analyses revealed that the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles corresponded to correlation coefficient values of 0.12, 0.24, and 0.41 and to Cohen’s d values of 0.15, 0.36, and 0.65 respectively. The analysis suggests that the widely used Cohen’s guidelines tend to overestimate medium and large effect sizes. Empirically derived effect size distributions in social psychology overall and subdisciplines can be used both for effect size interpretation and for sample size planning when other information about effect size is not available.
The current pilot study investigated the psychological mechanisms behind ethnic outgroup aggression, a significant outcome of intergroup conflicts. While previous research suggested several impactful predictors of ethnic outgroup aggression, such as intergroup contact and nationalism, no attempt has been made to synthesize all these constructs into a single cross-cultural study. Building on existing research, this pilot study is the first to assess a refined framework where we tested a proposed mediation model according to nationalism and emotion regulation mediate the relationship between intergroup contact, susceptibility to persuasion, and intergroup anxiety on the one hand and ethnic outgroup aggression on the other hand within a cross-cultural sample. An online questionnaire was distributed using convenience sampling among 2482 students with an ethnic majority background living and studying in ten (European) countries. Multigroup path analysis supported the larger part of the hypothesized model where we found that emotion regulation partially mediated the relationship between susceptibility to persuasion as a predictor and aggression as an outcome. As expected, we found that the higher the susceptibility to persuasion, the higher the emotion regulation, and the higher the regulation, the lower the aggression in all countries. Our pilot study provided preliminary evidence that emotion regulation, nationalism and susceptibility to persuasion are critical for the understanding of ethnic outgroup aggression in ethnically diverse societies. Future research needs to be carried out focusing on the development of an intergroup anxiety assessment in which possible gender differences in assessed constructs are considered.
Ten healthy volunteers participated in the ground imitation of a microgravity condition. For three weeks they stayed in the water filled tub without bodily support in supine position while isolated by waterproof material (this procedure is known as dry immersion - DI). During this period, they performed computer mouse pointing task and corresponding brain activity was evaluated by means of EEG: movement related and cognitive event-related potentials as well as resting state electroencephalogram were registered). Pointing task was performed before DI and at the time after initial period of adaptation – at the 5th and 17th days of DI. No deterioration of pointing task performance was found. Movement related potentials were not changed as well as cognitive peak P3, and only N1 peak significantly decreased at the 17th day of DI. Occipital alpha EEG also became significantly more pronounced at the 17th day of DI. Dry immersion procedure is thought to reproduce space flight physiological effects quite well, due to the DI specific feature – support withdrawal. Thus, results obtained indicate that support withdrawal also affects brain functioning in a specific way: increased alpha EEG is accompanied by altered visual processing (as indexed by diminished N1). Although these alterations are not sufficient to disrupt well learned mouse pointing task.
Effectiveness of various emotion regulation (ER) strategies have received much attention in recent research. Among the most studied ER strategies are cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression. However, the evidence of their effectiveness is controversial and depends on the measures used. The aim of the present study was to compare the effectiveness of cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression strategies of ER via different measures such as self-report, facial expressions (zygomaticus major and corrugator supercilii electromyography), and physiological assessment (skin conductance response and heart rate deceleration). Participants were presented with intensely unpleasant or neutral pictures and performed ER tasks. We expected that the implementation of ER strategies would reduce negative emotions, and cognitive reappraisal would produce greater reduction in negative emotions compared to expressive suppression. Self-report data showed that reappraisal had a greater effect on the reduction of negative emotions compared to suppression. There was no difference between reappraisal and suppression assessed with skin conductance response and electromyography. Curiously, heart rate deceleration increased while participants tried to suppress their emotional expressions, which could reflect efforts exerted in the attempt to suppress. The ER strategies reduced negative emotions during the presentation of unpleasant pictures partially in skin conductance response and heart rate deceleration. Overall, reappraisal is more effective in changing subjective experience, whereas the physiological reactions do not differ substantially between the two ER strategies explored. We therefore recommend that the assessment of ER strategies in the laboratory should accommodate more than one type of measures to come to more reliable conclusions.
Coaching methods are aimed at motivating people to achieve career or social skills. Therewith, coaching acts only as an additional form of career development for persons engaged in certain professions. The novelty of the study lies in the need to apply coaching methods not only during the period of active career implementation, but also during its interruption. This study is aimed at implementing the program for the development of career competence, the main tasks of which are to independently regulate professional life in a wide range of development vectors. The leading methods are the theoretical method of analysis and empirical methods of questioning and observation, which allow to study the impact of coaching on a person's professional development. The study shows that career development opportunities should be based on the psychological readiness of a person and, if necessary, on the correction of such readiness by means of psychological methods.
The European migrant crisis imposed a challenge to the scientific community to study migration processes, the adaptation of migrants and society to each other, as well as to develop the methodology of these processes. This process became a challenge for the social sphere of European states, which are interested in the speedy employment of migrants. The labor influx can have both positive and negative consequences for the economy of the host state. The study aims at distinguishing the socio-psychological factors of successful migrants’ adaptation. The methods of research include theoretical analysis, the method of expert evaluation, and factor analysis. The results confirmed the existing hypothesis that socio-psychological training should take several aspects into account during the work with a traumatic experience through the symbolic space, including a platform for the dialogue between the local population and migrants, linking the client with the meaning forming characteristics of individuals. The authors pay special attention to the prerequisites for adaptation and propose a psychological board game to form a symbolic transition space for cross-cultural dialogue and increase knowledge about the adaptation processes for migrants and the local population.
Previous research has demonstrated the existence of gender and sexuality differences in attitudes toward gay people (which in this paper includes both lesbian women and gay men unless specified). However, these studies did not account for people with diverse genders and sexual orientations ascribing different meanings to their gender identification and its potential role in attitudes towards gay people. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between gender identification and attitudes toward gay people among individuals of different genders and sexual orientations. Based on data obtained from 851 Russian respondents, the study reports the exploration of the direct link between two components of gender identification and four components of attitudes toward gay men and lesbians. Results indicated that stronger gender identification, in general, was related to more negative attitudes toward both gay men and lesbians. At the same time, compared to women and bisexual respondents, this link was stronger among men and straight participants respectively. A possible explanation via traditional gender ideologies is