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This book examines the waves of protest that broke out in the 2010s as the collective actions of self-organized publics. Drawing on theories of publics/counter-publics and developing an analytical framework that allows the comparison of different country cases, this volume explores the transformation from spontaneous demonstrations, driven by civic outrage against injustice to more institutionalized forms of protest. Presenting comparative research and case studies on e.g. the Portuguese Generation in Trouble, the Arab Spring in Northern Africa, or Occupy Wall Street in the USA, the authors explore how protest publics emerge and evolve in very different ways – from creating many small citizen groups focused on particular projects to more articulated political agendas for both state and society. These protest publics have provoked and legitimized concrete socio-political changes, altering the balance of power in specific political spaces, and in some cases generating profound moments of instability that can lead both to revolutions and to peaceful transformations of political institutions.
The authors argue that this recent wave of protests is driven by a new type of social actor: self-organized publics. In some cases these protest publics can lead to democratic reform and redistributive policies, while in others they can produce destabilization, ethnic and nationalist populism, and authoritarianism. This book will help readers to better understand how seemingly spontaneous public events and protests evolve into meaningful, well-structured collective action and come to shape political processes in diverse regions of the globe.
The Federal Ministry of Industry, Trade and Investment (FMITI) is mandated by law to provide support services and creating conducive business environment that supports the transformation of both small and large scale industries in Nigeria. The FMITI mandate and task is facilitated through its subsidiary, the Small Medium Enterprises Development Agency of Nigeria (SMEDAN). This is against the background that the parastatal will facilitate development (if well supported) by triggering production, employment opportunities and growth. Especially in Nigeria, where the informal sector employs more people than the formal sector, but with declining affluences of micro and small businesses, questions must be asked concerning the effectiveness of the institution’s programmes and policies in revitalising, sustaining as well as growing the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) sector. In this paper, literature on monitoring and evaluation (M&E), legislative framework linked to the functioning of small and medium business sector is extensively reviewed. Furthermore, this paper will critically evaluate SMEDAN mandate to provide support services that will transform the informal sector of the Nigerian economy using existing monitoring and evaluation systems of selected programmes and policies put in place by the agency to indicate readiness (or lack thereof) of the current system to further develop the micro, small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) sector of the economy. This paper adopts qualitative and quantitative methodologies. It is anticipated that findings from this research-based paper will present lessons which can be harnessed to better reposition monitoring and evaluation systems hence, ensure effectiveness of future programmes and policies that will generate employment opportunities through SMEDAN. Keywords: Monitoring and Evaluation, Systems, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSMEs).