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Purpose: The purpose of the article is to determine the perspectives of improving the system of emergency medical aid and services in the conditions of digital economy and to develop the algorithm of this system's work on the basis of the Internet of Things. Methodology: The methods of systematization, logical analysis, and block schemes are used. Results: As a result of studying the peculiarities of the applied universal algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services, current problems and their causal connections are determined. It is substantiated that in the conditions of digital economy there's a possibility for full-scale technological modernization of the system of emergency medical aid and services, which allows improving it due to complex solving of all determined topical problems. An algorithm of the work of the system of emergency medical aid and services on the basis of the Internet of Things is developed. Recommendations: The offered algorithm is recommended for practical application, as it ensures the following advantages: Automatic call for emergency medical aid if necessary, substantial reduction of the period of patient's waiting for a transport vehicle for providing emergency medical aid and services, reduction and automatization of organizational procedures that accompany the process of provision of emergency medical aid and services, overcoming the deficit or absence of necessary medication for providing highly-effective emergency medical aid and services, and increase of competence of medical staff that provide emergency medical aid and services due to systemic collection of feedback from patients. These advantages allow guaranteeing timely provision of emergency medical aid and services and insurance payments for compensating the expenditures of medical organizations, thus increasing the effectiveness of work of the system of emergency medical aid and services. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
Purpose: The purpose of the article consists in conceptual substantiation of automatization of the labor resources market in the age of the Internet of Things and development of recommendations for risk management of this process. Methodology: In this article, the process of automatization of the labor resources market in the age of the Internet of Things is studied with the help of the method of problem and logical analysis, modeling, formalization, and qualitative scenario analysis (it is used for determining the possible risks and perspectives of managing the risks). Results: As a result of studying the process of functioning and development of the online market of labor resources, its problems are determined, as well as perspectives and advantages of solving them with the help of the Internet of Things. A concept of automatization of the labor resources market with the help of the Internet of Things is developed and presented. The risks of automatization of the labor resources market with the help of the Internet of Things and perspectives of risk management are determined. Recommendations: It is substantiated that digital modernization of the labor resources market on the basis of the Internet of Things allows for authomatization and rationalization of behavior of this market's participants, ensuring quick optimal decisions with minimum resource intensity. The offered conceptual substantiation of automatization of the labor resources market in the age of the Internet of Things reflects the logic and essence of this process, and the stated perspectives of risk management allow preserving sustainability of the online market of labor resources in case of its authomatization and maximizing the effectiveness of this process. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to determine the barriers and perspective of formation of the E-healthcare system in modern Russia. Methodology: Empirical study of the process of formation of the E-healthcare system by the example of modern Russia is conducted with application of the complex of general scientific methods within the systemic approach (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, and formalization), as well as special methods of economic science-the method of SWOT analysis and the method of modeling of socio-economic systems. Results: It is determined that formation of the E-healthcare system will allow increasing the global competitiveness of the healthcare system in modern Russia due to integration of medical organizations and medical services, increase of the quality of service during provision of medical services, and increase of accessibility of medical services. A barrier on the path of formation of the E-healthcare system in Russia is insufficient development of infrastructural provision (institutional and human infrastructure). Perspectives of formation of the E-healthcare system in Russia are connected to implementation of the top-priority direction of the program of formation of digital economy "Improvement of the processes of organization of medical help on the basis implementation of information technologies". Recommendations: For overcoming the determined drawback of this direction-weakness of its conceptual platform-a conceptual model of the E-healthcare system in modern Russia is developed and presented. This model is to ensure acceleration of the process of formation of the E-healthcare system in modern Russia. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
Purpose: The purpose of the work is to substantiate the essence and advantages, as well as to develop a cluster mechanism of marketing optimization on the basis of systemic interaction between the Internet of Things and social networks. Methodology: The methods of systemic, problem, and logical analysis, synthesis, and imitation modeling are used. Results: As a result of studying the existing practice of marketing in social networks, barriers on the path of the fullest opening of the potential of marketing in social networks, drawbacks of the existing practice of marketing in social networks, and perspectives for reducing the barriers on the basis of systemic interaction between the Internet of Things and social networks are determined, as well as related advantages that ensure optimization of marketing practice in social networks. Recommendations: A cluster mechanism of marketing optimization on the basis of systemic interaction between the Internet of Things and social networks is developed and recommended for practical application. It is substantiated that marketing in social networks could be fully automatized with the help of cluster mechanism on the basis of the Internet of Things. This ensures the following advantages for business, which promotes the products in social networks: The fullest coverage of target audience, more effective spending of marketing resources, and increase of loyalty of consumers due to personified marketing communications. Consumers can also obtain advantages that are connected to limitation of unpopular marketing communications, simplification of selection of products from the catalog, and simplification of the procedures of purchasing. This will allow opening the commercial potential of marketing in social networks, stimulating the development of online entrepreneurship, and accelerating the rate of economic growth. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
The purpose of the article is to perform comparative analysis of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed and developing countries. As peculiarities of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed countries have been studied in this book in the process of studying successful experience of formation of Industry 4.0 in the countries of the world, the authors focus on determining the specifics of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries. In order to ensure compatibility of data for developed and developing countries, the similar methods are used—which are based on the authors’ methodological recommendations for monitoring the process of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries in 2017 and evaluating effectiveness of Industry 4.0 from the point of view of stimulation of development of knowledge economy in developing countries. During comparison of results of research of the essence and peculiarities of formation of Industry 4.0 in developed and developing countries, the method of comparative analysis is used. For determining the barriers on the path of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, the authors use the method of systemic and problem analysis. For complex study of specifics of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, the objects are the countries that are peculiar for various levels of socio-economic development and belonging to various geographical regions of the world: the South African Republic, China, India, and Brazil. As a result of the research, it is substantiated that the process of formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries has its peculiarities and is different than in developed countries. As compared to developed countries, in which the process of formation of Industry 4.0 was started earlier and aimed at marketing and social results, developing countries face institutional (absence of state policy of formation of Industry 4.0) and financial barriers and seek economic goals. At the same time, the initiative approach to formation of Industry 4.0 in developing countries, within which the initiators of this process are economic subjects (companies), envisages larger flexibility and effectiveness as compared to the directive approach (state initiative), which is applied in developed countries. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019.
The offered conceptual model of conflict of a socio-economic system as an analogue of the model of economic cycle allows specifying the methodology of studying economic crises, which are manifestations/examples of economic conflicts. This model emphasizes the dichotomic nature of economic conflict (its probable negative or positive consequences), which allows for more precise treatment of economic crisis – which is usually considered to be a negative phenomenon. According to the offered model, crisis is not a phase of economic cycle but socio-economic process that is characterized by cyclic fluctuations. As is expected, the developed model will allow describing the practice of development of modern socio-economic systems with higher precision.
The determined specifics show the necessity for considering the influence of the organizational culture on specifics of the process of decision making in modern business systems. It is substantiated that no type of organizational culture of modern business systems according to the criterion of employees' involvement in decision making can provide a guarantee of decisions' optimality. The directions of managing the organizational culture depending on the set criteria (completeness, speed, resource intensity) of decision making are recommended.
This chapter analyzes the technological growth of the modern Russian economy through the prism of evaluating its effectiveness from the position of costs and profits. It also determines the factors of this growth and develops recommendations for managing them in the interests of acceleration of rate and increase of effectiveness of technological growth of the modern Russian economy. While technological growth in Russia shows high effectiveness, the model of technological growth in Russia has its specifics, connected to the unconventional influence of a standard set of the factors on technological growth. The influence of the factor of the number of organizations that implement R&D is insignificant, and the influence of the number of personnel involved with R&D, volume of private expenditures for R&D, and the number of used leading production technologies is negative (reverse). We offer recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of technological growth of the modern Russian economy, which are connected to increase of the volume of state expenditures for R&D (recommended volume – USD 35.09, its growth as compared to 2018 constitutes 191.76%) and increase of the number of developed leading production technologies (recommended number of these technologies – 2350.05, its growth as compared to 2018 constitutes 62.34%).
As a result, it is substantiated that outsource is a perspective tool of making of managerial decisions in modern business systems. Various directions of application of this tool are accessible at each stage of the process of making of managerial decisions in a modern business system. The advantages of decision making by the principles of outsource are attraction of additional resources, access to possibilities of automatization, and low expenses, and the drawbacks include the complexity of organization of this process and temporary character of obtained advantages. Too active usage of outsource and transfer of most managerial decisions to it may lead to loss of independence of the business system and increase of the risk of its reorganization. That's why the principles of outsource are recommended for making of certain managerial decisions by business systems in the period of crisis and by newly formed business systems and those that experience deficit of resources.
The purpose of the paper is to determine the perspectives of diversification of educational services in the conditions of industry 4.0 on the basis of artificial intelligence (AI) training, determine the consequences of this process for academic and teaching staff and to develop recommendations for its practical implementation.
Purpose The purpose of the research is to study conceptual foundations and methodology of evaluation of effectiveness of state tax policy and to determine effectiveness of state tax policy that is implemented in modern Russia. Methodology For complex evaluation of effectiveness of state tax policy, the proprietary methods, which allows combining advantages of both existing conceptual approaches and overcoming their drawbacks, is used. This method envisages evaluation of effectiveness of state tax policy through separate calculation of the value of financial indicator and values of non-financial indicators with the following unification and treatment of the received results. Results It is showed that the modern Russian state tax policy is peculiar for low effectiveness. The main reason for that is insufficiently successful implementation of the most important function of the taxation system—provision of collection of taxes for state budgets of all levels of the budget system—due to deficit of the consolidated state budget of the Russian Federation and critically large volume of tax evasion (shadow economy). Costs of tax policy exceed its positive results by more than two times, even without consideration of expenditures for state tax administration and control. In addition to this, state tax policy in Russia does not fully conform to the declared principles of stability, transparency, justice, and stimulation of national interests. Recommendations it is concluded that low effectiveness of tax policy of the state could be one of the reasons of non-optimality of modern Russia’s taxation system. That’s why increase of effectiveness of state tax policy is recommended for optimization of this system. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.
The purpose of the chapter is to study the process of creating highly efficient jobs in the cyber economy through the integration of AI and employees’ mastering new digital competencies.
This paper presents a rich collection of data used to construct an energy security performance index of the eight countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Namely, the index covers Azerbaijan, Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. The data include results of Z-score normalization of 12 distinct indicators, constituting a total of 4 dimensions of energy security performance. These dimensions are the following: energy availability (oil import dependence, coal import dependence, natural gas import dependence), energy affordability (access to electricity, pump price for gasoline, pump price for diesel fuel), energy and economic efficiency (renewable energy consumption, GDP per unit of energy use, electric power consumption), and environmental stewardship (CO2, N2O, and SO2 emissions). Z-scores are calculated for 2000 and 2014, which allows to evaluate energy security performance of the CIS countries in each dimension and in total over the period of 14 years.
This chapter elaborates on entrepreneurship in developed and developing countries and focuses on the optimization of entrepreneurial activities. Various scenarios are considered: independent functioning of the market, integration in the form of reorganization (mergers and acquisitions), integration in the form of clustering, and integration in the form of innovational networks and technological parks. The optimal structure of the integration processes and best-case scenarios for its implementation to accelerate the rate and increase the quality of economic growth are substantiated. The potential for uptake of integration processes in stimulating economic growth through entrepreneurship is determined by the level of institutionalization in an economy. In developed countries, all forms of company integration are characterized by the high level of institutionalization, which allows for their effective use for economic growth. Independent companies, mergers, and acquisitions restrain economic growth and reduce its quality, while clusters, technological parks, and innovational networks accelerate the rate of economic growth and increase its quality. In developing countries, integration processes in entrepreneurship have a different influence on economic growth and require further institutionalization
Purpose: The working hypothesis of this research is that specifics of activities of university that provides remote education does not allow using the same evaluation criteria for assessment of its competitiveness that allow assessing competitiveness of university that provides traditional education. The purpose of this paper is to verify the offered hypothesis, study the modern Russian experience of evaluating the competitiveness of university that provides remote education and develop methodological recommendations for improving this process. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use the existing scientific approaches to determining competitiveness of a company, including university, for complex and comprehensive study of the set problem. The information and analytical basis of this research is formed of methodological materials of the ranking of best universities of Russia for 2017 according to independent analytical agency “RaExpert” and “Announcement of open competition for state support for leading universities of the Russian Federation for the purpose of raising their competitiveness among the leading global scientific and educational centers of the Ministry of Education and Science of the RF.” Findings: The offered hypothesis was proved. It is concluded that modern Russia uses the same (common) criteria for evaluating competitiveness of universities, regardless of the form of provided educational services. This is incorrect from the scientific and methodological point of view, as the work shows that most criteria are characterized by different applicability as to the university that provides traditional education and the university that provides remote education. Originality/value: Methodological provision of evaluating the university’s competitiveness that provides remote education is elaborated by the authors by development of additional criteria. It is recommended to assign weight coefficients to all criteria depending on the level of applicability (importance) as to the university that provides remote education. © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to substantiate the perspectives of using remote education as a means of restoring Russian recessing regions’ economy and develop framework recommendations for this. Design/methodology/approach: The set goal is achieved by finding the dependence of the values of indicators of socio-economic development on the level of development of education in Russian regions. The methods of regression and correlation analysis are used for that. Findings: The findings showed a moderate direct connection between the development of education and socio-economic position of the region if found. Qualitative analysis allowed substantiating large perspectives of using remote education as a means of restoring Russian recessing regions’ economy, which have two manifestations. The first one is related to the increase of accessibility of educational services in Russian regions. Due to this, the potential of development of region’s human potential is better realized. Being one of the key resources in the conditions of knowledge economy, human resources stimulate the activation of entrepreneurial activities, growth of labor efficiency and innovational activity of region’s companies. The second manifestation envisages the formation of entrepreneurship in the sphere of remote education as a growth vector and source of competitive advantages of recessing region’s economy. This opens possibilities for the formation of knowledge economy in region and supporting its high competitiveness. Low capital intensity of entrepreneurship in the sphere of remote education makes it accessible for development even in recessing regions, stimulating the growth of the volume of tax revenues into the regional state budget and formation of its positive balance. Originality/value: For the practical implementation of the determined large perspectives of using remote education as a means of restoring Russian recessing regions’ economy, authors’ framework recommendations are offered, which are aimed at the improvement of normative and legal conditions for the conduct of entrepreneurial activities in the sphere of remote education, information support for this entrepreneurship and its marketing support and promotion as a basis of region’s economy’s competitiveness. © 2019, Emerald Publishing Limited.
The purpose of this chapter is to determine fundamental differences of transition to Industry 4.0 from previous industrial revolutions. The methodology includes structural & functional analysis, comparative analysis, induction, deduction, formalization, etc. These methods are used for determining similarities with previous industrial revolutions and peculiarities of the future Fourth Industrial Revolution. The authors prove that transition to Industry 4.0 is a new industrial revolution, which is shown by the attributes that are a sign of all industrial revolutions: change of the type of technological mode as a result of mass implementation of accumulated industrial innovations and systemic transformations in industry, which results in deep changes in logistics and manufactured products. At the same time, the Fourth Industrial Revolution is unprecedented and possesses a whole range of peculiarities, as compared to previous industrial revolutions. It envisages full elimination of human from the production system, ensuring absolute automatization of the production process, simultaneous combination of formation of global industrial networks with elimination of negative social consequences, changes the essence of industrial patents, and creates a possibility for quick change of direction of industrial production’s specialization. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019
The aim of the study was to assess temporal trends in health risks related to most common persistent contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (DDTs), lead (Pb), as well as mercury (Hg) among indigenous peoples living in coastal areas of Chukotka in Arctic Russia. This is examined in relation to exposure pathways and a range of social and behavioral factors capable of modifying the exposure to these contaminants, including place of residence, income, traditional subsistence, alcohol consumption, and awareness of risk prevention. The primary exposure pathway for PCBs is shown to be the intake of traditional foods, which explained as much as 90% of the total health risk calculated employing established risk guidelines. Nearly 50% of past DDT-related health risks also appear to have been contributed by contaminated indoor surfaces involving commonly used DDT-containing insecticides. Individuals who practiced traditional activities are shown to have experienced a 4.4-fold higher risk of exposure to PCBs and a 1.3-fold higher risk for DDTs, Pb, and Hg. Low income, high consumption of marine mammal fat, alcohol consumption, and lack of awareness of health risk prevention are attributed to a further 2- to 6-fold increase in the risk of PCBs exposure. Low socioeconomic status enhances the health risks associated with exposure to the persistent contaminants examined.
The purpose of the work is to study the possibilities of formation of Industry 4.0 as a new vector of growth and development of knowledge economy by the example of modern Russia and to develop recommendations for their practical implementation. For this, the method of dynamics (horizontal and trend) analysis of time rows and correlation analysis are used. The indicator of development of knowledge economy is the corresponding index that is prepared by the World Bank. The vectors of growth and development of knowledge economy are share of innovations-active companies in the structure of entrepreneurship, number of developed completely new leading production technologies, and share of high-tech spheres in economy (as the indicator of development of the sphere of science and education) according to the Federal State Statistics Service. The author shows that knowledge economy, which was developing dynamically at the initial stage of its formation, has slowed down. The existing growth vectors—innovational entrepreneurship, high-tech spheres of economy, and the sphere of science and education—have depleted their potential and cannot ensure its further development. It is necessary to look for such vectors, of which the most perspective is Industry 4.0, as formation of Industry 4.0 leads to growth of knowledge economy: innovational development, increase of the values of indicators of socio-economic development of economic system, and increase of the role of intellectual component of economy—the sphere of science and education. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2019.
This book addresses a wide range of issues relating to the theoretical substantiation of the necessity of Industry 4.0, the development of the methodological tools for its analysis and evaluation, and practical solutions for effectively managing this process. It particularly focuses on solving the problem of optimizing the development of Industry 4.0 in the context of knowledge economy formation.
The book presents the authors’ approach to studying the process of Industry 4.0 formation in connection with knowledge economy, and approach that allows the process to be studied in connection with the existing socio-economic and technological conditions. As a result, the conclusions and recommendations could be applied to modern economic systems and do not require any further elaboration.
The presented research is based on modern economic theory scientific and methodological tools, including the tools of the theory of economic cycles, the theory of games, and the institutional economic theory. Raising awareness of the problem of Industry 4.0 formation, the book is of interest to a wide audience, including not only specialists and experts with a detailed knowledge of the topic, but also scholars, lecturers, and undergraduates of various fields of economics